1. Which strategies will you use to improve your chances of getting an interview? 1
2. What specific steps will you take to improve your interview performance? 2
3. Why shouldn’t you abandon your efforts to obtain a job if you get a rejection notice after an interview? 2
3. What can you gain from seeking an evalua- tion of your interview performance from an interviewer who did not hire you? 3
4. If all of your efforts fail to result in a job offer, what last request should you make of an interviewer? 3
How to Make it Happen
Lauri Harwood Business Consultant and Trainer
Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States
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Your Career: How to Make It Happen, Eighth Edition Lauri Harwood
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Brief TaBle of ConTenTsBrief TaBle of ConTenTs
ParT 1 Starting Your Career 2 Chapter 1: The Job search Process 4
Chapter 2: Know What employers expect 19
Chapter 3: Know Yourself to Market Yourself 39
ParT 2 Sources of Job Information 60 Chapter 4: Your Winning network 62
Chapter 5: research Careers and find Job leads 81
ParT 3 Essential Job Search Communications 98 Chapter 6: resumes 100
Chapter 7: Job applications and Cover letters 147
ParT 4 The Job Interview 178 Chapter 8: interview essentials 180
Chapter 9: ask for—and Get—the interview 197
Chapter 10: interview styles and Questions 213
Chapter 11: interview like a Pro 233
ParT 5 Next Steps 254 Chapter 12: following Up and negotiating offers 256
Chapter 13: Dealing with Disappointment 267
Chapter 14: Take Charge of Your Career 277
appendix: Using Social Media in Your Job Search 304 Glossary 310
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TaBle of ConTenTs
ChaPTer 1: The Job search Process 4 The Job Search Cycle: Where to Start? 5 Managing Your Job Search 6 Your Job Search Files and Career Portfolio 7 Success Strategies for Marketing Yourself 10
ChaPTer 2: Know What employers expect 19 The World of Work: Basic Expectations 20 Ethical Expectations in the Workplace 23 In-Demand Industries and Occupations 26
ChaPTer 3: Know Yourself to Market Yourself 39 Take a Personal Inventory 40 Know What Is Important to You 43 Self-Assessment and Career Planning
Resources 44 Set Your Career Targets 46 Job Qualifications Profile 47
ParT 1 Starting Your Career 2
ChaPTer 6: resumes 100 What Is a Resume? 101 Plan Your Resume Content 102 Write and Edit Your Resume 107 Organize Your Resume 110 Format Your Resume 111 Customize Your Resume 116 Internet Resources 117
ChaPTer 7: Job applications and Cover letters 147 Applying for Jobs 148 The Employment Application 148 Apply for a Job with a Preprinted Application 154 Cover Letters 155 Apply for Jobs Online 163 Distribute Your Print Job Search Package 164
ParT 3 Essential Job Search Communications 98
ChaPTer 4: Your Winning network 62 Networking Pays Off 63 Identify Your Networks 63 Strategies for Networking 64 Career Information Survey 69
ChaPTer 5: research Careers and find Job leads 81 Get an Edge through Research 82 Research Career Fields and Companies 85 Find Job Leads 87
ParT 2 Sources of Job Information 60
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vTable of Contents
ChaPTer 8: interview essentials 180 Key Elements of Successful Interviews 181 Dress for Success 182 Use Positive Body Language 184 Speak Well for Yourself 185 Be Aware of Business Etiquette 187 Prepare Your 30-Second Commercial 188 Prepare Your Interview Marketing Kit 189
ChaPTer 9: ask for—and Get—the interview 197 Getting an Interview 198 Direct Requests for Interviews 198 Indirect Strategies for Landing Interviews 203 While You’re Waiting for the Interview 207
ChaPTer 10: interview styles and Questions 213 Inside the Interview 214 Typical Interview Questions 219 Your Questions Count 225
ChaPTer 11: interview like a Pro 233 Gain a Competitive
Advantage 234 Prepare for the
Interview 236 Wrap Up the Interview in
Your Favor 238 Good Interview
Follow-up Moves 240
Ace Employment Tests 245
ParT 4 The Job Interview 178
ChaPTer 12: following Up and negotiating offers 256 Evaluate a Job Offer 257 Negotiate for Top Salary and Benefits 258 Respond to a Job Offer Professionally 260
ChaPTer 13: Dealing with Disappointment 267 If You Don’t Get Interviews 268 If Interviews Don’t Lead to Job Offers 269 Strategies for Better Outcomes 270
ParT 5 Next Steps 254
appendix: Using Social Media in Your Job Search 304 Glossary 310
ChaPTer 14: Take Charge of Your Career 277 Start Your Successful Career Immediately 278 Develop Good Work Habits 281 Succeed with Your Coworkers 283 Manage Your Career 286
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Introducing Your Career: How to Make It Happen, 8e …
Starting Your Career
Kim Slaton Career Consultant, JVS Cincinnati Career Network
Kim Slaton tells job seekers she advises, “Looking for a job is a full-time job. Learn- ing how to be successful in a job search takes time and experience. Your first task should be to organize your ‘job search cen- tral’ space. This is your office now that you are self-employed. Set up a system for or- ganizing, tracking, and storing the informa- tion you will generate in your job search.”
Kim says that the scarcity of available jobs is the greatest obstacle facing all job seekers. “If you can find out about a po- tential opportunity before it is posted, you essentially cut out the competition and in- crease your chances of landing the position. The best way to access this hidden job mar- ket is through face-to-face networking. Get out from behind your computer and show decision makers firsthand what a great as- set you could be to their organization.”
About resumes and cover letters, Kim says, “Your resume and cover letter preview the type of employee you will be. If they don’t represent you in a professional manner, the employer will look to the next resume in the pile. The reader needs to see at a glance how your skills and accomplishments match what the job calls for. Don’t stop with one resume; customize your master resume to each job
description. Weave the same words in the job description into your resume and cover letter. And remember that the only goal of a resume is to get invitations for job interviews. If you aren’t getting inter- views, get advice about changing your
resume and cover letter. “It takes more time and energy
in today’s tough job market to land a great job, but you can do it. Stick with it and keep your skills sharp by taking professional develop- ment courses and reading industry journals to stay up to date with trends in your career field.”
PART 1 introduces you to the job search process. You will also learn about the world of work and the employer/employee relationship.
CHAPTER 1 The Job Search Process CHAPTER 2 Know What Employers
Expect CHAPTER 3 Know Yourself to Market
1 ADVICE FROM THE EXPERT
Look for more tips and advice from Kim and Gabriel on the product website. www.cengage.com/ career/yourcareer ©
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Part Opener … Each section of the book showcases the real-life perspective of two experts—one who sits behind the desk and one who is a jobseeker or a newly hired employee. Includes a plan- ner for organizing class assignments and outside commitments in the coming weeks.
Gabriel O’Neill Velasco, B.S.N. Poudre Valley Hospital
When he was 32, Gabriel Velasco began thinking about changing careers. He had a creative job that he enjoyed at a small tele- vision company, shooting and editing news stories and making commercials. Because of his field, videography, Gabriel knew that his career would stall unless he asked his family to move to Los Angeles or New York City, which he didn’t want to do.
When Gabriel thought about work he had enjoyed in the past, first in his mind was “helping work” he had done with Habitat for Humanity and the Boulder Sister City Project. He chose nursing because of the challenges and the many career paths for nurses. Four years later, after being a part-time student for one year and a full-time student for two more years, Gabriel is a registered nurse working in a hospital, his first choice of career paths.
Gabriel’s advice to anyone entering the job market or choosing a new career is to “Prioritize what’s important to you, whether it’s making a lot of money, making work your focus, or spending time with family and enjoying outside pursuits. You have to consider those things seriously so you can find as much satisfaction and happiness as possible in and out of work.”
If you think you may be out of work for a while, Gabriel recommends that you “Put your ego in check and be willing to be flexible. Think about taking a job that isn’t your first choice, without letting go of your dreams. Network. Be social—you never know where an opportunity is going to arise.”
Gabriel has this advice for suc- ceeding at every job: “Do your best at a job no matter what it is. Keep things in perspective as much as possible and don’t let trivial matters become weightier than they really are. Each day find some enjoyment in what you do.”
Read the outcomes on the first page of Chapters 1–3 and mark the ones that are most important to you. What do you want to accomplish by reading these chapters and doing the assignments?
How much time is in the syllabus for Chapters 1–3?
List the dates for reading assignments and the dates for turning in homework and projects for this class.
What are your other major commitments in the coming weeks (for other classes, work, home)? For each task, include the estimated time and when you will do it.
If you are doing any group projects, list infor- mation that will help the project go smoothly: project goal and due date, each person’s assignments and phone number, dates for completing each part of the project, meeting dates, and anything else.
Ready, Set, PLAN
TALES FROM THE JOB SEARCH
f G ab
rie l V
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Hiring professionals and jobseekers give timely advice about finding a job.
Readers plan their assignments and other commitments for the coming weeks.
Packed with innovative resources readers can apply now and throughout their careers, best-selling YOUR CAREER: HOW TO MAKE IT HAPPEN, 8e delivers a comprehensive, step-by-step guide to finding and keeping a job—turning job seekers into job finders.
YoUr GUiDe To exPlorinG, ConneCTinG, sUCCeeDinG!
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GeTTinG sTarTeD Chapter Opener …
1 Describe the five phases in the job search cycle and the activities in each phase.
2 Prepare record-keeping and time management tools for your job search.
3 Set up your Career Management Files Tracker and start building your Career Portfolio.
4 Evaluate and apply mental success strategies.
CHAPTER 1 The Job Search Process
OVERVIEW Chapter 1 introduces you to
the phases of the job search process. You
will learn about the importance and benefits
of following a structured process to man-
age and track your job search. You also will
start building your Career Management Files
Tracker, a tool for managing and tracking
your job search activities, research, and
documents. Finally, you will start thinking
about the best and most appropriate samples
of your work to put into your Career Portfolio.
Chapter 1 also describes success strat-
egies to motivate you and give you confi-
dence for marketing yourself during your
job search. You will learn how you can use
these career-boosting skills and positive
attitudes to help you achieve career success
and reach your full potential.
1-1: Daily Job Search Organizer
1-2: Career Management Files Tracker
1-3: Internet Research on Career Portfolios
1-4: Proactive Success Action Plan
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Outcomes—a quick review of core concepts tied to content throughout the chapter.
Overview—summary of achievement expectations of the chapter.
Beyond the Classroom …
Career Actions—an at-a-glance list of the chapter Career Action assignments, which take students beyond the classroom and into the business world.
Career foCUseD feaTUres Chapter 11 Interview Like a Pro 234
Users of Your Career: How to Make It Happen emphasize that the practice interviews improve their actual interview performance by as much as 100 percent. They say that this valuable practice enhances their prepara- tion, increases their self-con�dence, improves the image of competence they project, and reduces their anxiety about the process—all of which improve their performance in actual interviews.
Gain these valuable advantages yourself by doing practice interviews.
Interview with Someone in Your Support Network
Schedule a practice interview with a friend, a family member, or an acquaintance in your support network, preferably someone expe- rienced in interviewing who knows you per- sonally. Ask someone to observe the practice interview and get recommendations from both people for improving your performance.
1 Gain a Competitive Advantage
While some people may claim that they can walk into an interview and “wing it,” do not try to be one of them.
If you get an email or a telephone call asking you to come to a job interview, the employer is interested in you. You are the focus of the inter- view. You will be evaluated on your past suc- cesses and mistakes and on your future goals and potential. You will be expected to give con- crete examples of your skills and explain how they relate to the requirements for this job.
Any nervousness that you feel about an upcoming job interview is an appropriate response to a situation that will test your inter- personal, social, professional, and verbal and nonverbal skills. Preparation and practice can help you relax and give you a genuine competi- tive advantage over the other people who are interviewing for “your” position.
Because an interview is a dynamic exchange between two people, there will never be a list of “Interview Do’s and Don’ts” that works in every situation. There are, however, three gifts you can give yourself to be at your best in interviews:
Plenty of time to prepare so that you aren’t rushed or stressed right before the interview
Diligent, focused preparation and practice
The self-con�dence you will gain from feeling ready for the interview
Go online and search on the phrase job interview advice. Read a few articles in depth or gather tidbits from several sites. Look for guide- lines about standard business etiquette and see if you can �nd spe- ci�c expectations for your career �eld. The Internet has the power to set standards and establish cultural norms by judging or rewarding certain behaviors; so it’s important to know what’s being said. For fun, read about the worst interview blunders to make sure you don’t repeat someone else’s.
JUMP START Your Interview
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Jump Start challenges students to analyze careers of interest and questions associated with them and to conduct research to get the answers.
MAKE IT A HABITMAKE IT A HABIT
Chapter 6 Resumes 105
Keep Your Skills Inventory Up to Date During your job search and throughout your career, you will need to update your inventory of skills. Get into the habit of reassessing your skills and accomplishments twice a year. As you develop new skills and gain more experience, training, and education, your goals will change or expand.
Repeating the self-analysis activities in this chapter at turning points in your career will also help you identify your skills and see where you fall short compared with other candidates and employees. You can then seek the training and experience you need to help ensure that you will continue to be an asset to employers and will grow in your career.
General ledger, inventory control, and accounts receivable and accounts payable experience
Proven team-player skills demonstrated in three successful internship projects
In the appropriate section of your resume (Work Experience, Education, or Related Activities), provide proof of the quali�cations you have listed in the Quali�cations section. If you do not have strong work experience related to your job objective, use the Quali�cations summary to emphasize your accomplish- ments and skills in areas other than paid work experience.
In the Work Experience section of a resume, list the jobs you have held, starting with the most recent one. Start each entry with the most important information: your job title and dates of employment. On the next line, list the name of the organization and the city and state. Continuing on this line or starting on the third line, write a brief results-oriented descrip- tion of your responsibilities. Use the present tense to describe your current job duties (conduct, organize, reduce, etc.).
Organize your descriptions so that they begin with the results and bene�ts of your work. Give speci�c, measurable examples of your accomplishments, such as increased sales, decreased costs, and reduced errors. Quantify where possible (with a percentage, a speci�c dollar �gure, the number of items sold, etc.); for example, “Increased sales by 45% through skillful negotiation with automotive clients.”
If you have held increasingly more respon- sible jobs with one employer, show this to demonstrate your reliability and your ability to learn and achieve on the job. List only new responsibilities and accomplishments for each promotion. (The reader will assume continuing job duties.) See Figure 6-13 on pages 134–136 for an example.
If you have little work experience, list your part-time and summer work, internships, school projects, volunteer work, and community involvement. Invent a job title if necessary and
emphasize the accomplishments and skills you developed—even if they do not relate directly to your job target. For example, if you recently graduated, one accomplishment might read as follows:
Earned 85% of school expenses working part-time during school years and full-time during summers
This example demonstrates work experience, initiative, and the ability to make the most of a challenging situation. Employers consider these qualities real pluses, particularly for entry-level applicants.
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Make it a Habit provides information about job etiquette, manners, and behavior.
Watch Out warns about career taboos and mistakes to avoid.
Chapter 2 Know What Employers Expect 25
may have to report expenses or manage a bud- get in some way.
Many employers run credit checks on job applicants. A good personal credit rating is a sign that an employee knows how to manage money. A poor credit score is a sign that an employee is �nancially irresponsible or takes �nancial risks.
The Ethical Employee
Employers want to hire people who have integrity—people who can be trusted to keep their word and who are honest, fair, law- abiding, and trustworthy.
Act Honestly and with Integrity
Honesty and integrity are signs of a dependable and reliable employee and a trusted coworker. Working with honesty means working a full day, not being late or taking long breaks, not steal- ing or borrowing from the employer (including not texting your friends instead of working), and being trusted with merchandise and business �nances.
Employees who are known for their honesty and integrity are trusted to follow directions, make smart business decisions, and keep busi- ness information con�dential. They demonstrate responsibility through their actions and are given more opportunities because they are trustworthy.
Managing money honestly and well is essential for achieving career success. Even employees who do not handle cash in a job
Internet Research on Corporate Codes of Ethics, p. 36
CAREER ACTION 2-4
Be Fair to Everyone
A sure-�re way to antagonize your coworkers is to take credit for someone else’s ideas or work. This extends to letting a supervisor assume that you did the work. Fairness also means ful�lling your commitments and doing your share of the assigned work. Never, ever shirk your respon- sibilities to your team, your work group, your supervisor—or the mail clerk or janitorial staff.
Be Careful with Sensitive Information
A t one time or another, every employee has access to sensitive company information or knows things about the company that are not intended to be made public. Be as careful with company information as you are with your personal information.
Consider the information your boss shares with you to be confidential and do not divulge it to anyone.
Password-protect confidential documents.
Do not leave your computer with open documents on the monitor. Close the files before you leave your station.
Never leave the office unattended. If you go on break and your boss is not in, leave a note on the door and lock it.
Never leave sensitive documents on your desk.
When you leave work for the day, store sensitive documents in a locked file cabinet.
If you use a laptop, password-protect the system. Do not leave your laptop someplace where it might be stolen.
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Chapter 5 Research Careers and Find Job Leads86
Ask librarians to help you locate interna- tional business information if you want to work outside the United States or if your target employer has international holdings or is based in another country. The main branch of a public library will have more extensive holdings than will neighborhood branches.
College Career Centers
These valuable organizations go by differ- ent names at different colleges and universi- ties, such as Career Services and the Career Resources Center. Whatever its name at your institution, the center is a gold mine of career information with comprehensive resources for learning about industries, companies, speci�c jobs, local employers, and more.
The center may have many of the preceding library resources in addition to other resources directed to students, such as Job Choices, an excellent magazine published by the National Association of Colleges and Employers.
Company pamphlets, brochures, and annual reports
Dun & Bradstreet’s Million Dollar Database
Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance
Thomas Register of American Manufacturers
Standard and Poor’s publications, such as Industry Surveys, Stock Reports, and Register of Corporations
Value Line Investment Survey
Business Periodicals Index
Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature
Occupational Outlook Handbook, published by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Area telephone directories
Encyclopedia of Associations
Newspaper and journal articles
The Wall Street Journal and business maga- zines such as Fortune and Businessweek
Find Job Leads with Twitter Unlike many other social networking sites, Twitter users commonly chat and connect with complete strangers. This is great news for job seekers who are willing to be outgoing to meet others in their industry. A simple search can yield hundreds of people and businesses that hold the same interests and are willing to talk with you.
Create a free Twitter pro�le, if you haven’t already, and complete your pro�le indicating interest in your industry and career �elds.
Search for people and businesses that are interested and active in your �eld and “follow” them.
Read tweets sent out by select companies to learn what’s new with them and whether they’re hiring. More and more companies tweet out current job openings.
Follow experts who are active in your industry, read the articles and information they are twittering, and ask them for advice.
Send out tweets about your job-seeking interests.
Twitter users share information and links in real time, so you can often �nd the most up- to-date information on the Web. Search engines have to play catch-up because they need more time to �nd and index articles.
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NEW! Social Media Feature allows you to go beyond your personal network and tap into the best job search resources available on the Inter- net. YOUR CAREER: HOW TO MAKE IT HAPPEN, 8e emphasizes the importance of being socially active and responsible to make YOU stand out and get the best results.
Appendix Using Social Media in Your Job Search306
loses a big game, but no one other than your unfortunate neighbor is going to hear you. Social media—Web 2.0—has opened up a new avenue for people to express themselves. Now when your favorite team loses, you can rant on Facebook, Twitter about it, write a blog post, post a video log, or exchange views with other fans on a sports forum. However you choose to engage online, the Web is now a place where people connect with other people. Web 2.0 emphasizes self-publishing, collaboration
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