Answers Should be 300 words exactly. Answers for each question should be placed beneath the questions. Two references per question.
Compare and contrast a cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. Summarize the purpose, strengths, limitations, and assumptions that underlie each approach. Discuss how to apply these approaches in public health policy development, citing an example for each from the research literature.
The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (most often referred to as the Affordable Care Act, or ACA) was a monumental milestone in terms of national health reform. Describe the social, economic, and political contexts that contributed to the passage of the ACA. In your opinion, what elements of the ACA are working, and what are some areas that need improvement? Use evidence to support your viewpoint.
In March 2020, the global COVID-19 pandemic became a critical public health emergency. The surge of new cases in the U.S. began to overwhelm health care systems and stretch them to the brink of collapse. States began to implement highly effective, but very restrictive mass quarantine policies known as "lockdowns" in an effort to flatten the epidemiological curve of COVID-19 cases. Describe the ethical challenges these state policies pose in terms of balancing individual rights and public health. Do you believe that mandatory state lockdown policies were justified? Why or why not?
What are the benefits of a policy analysis? What purpose does the problem statement have in a policy analysis? Write a succinct, clear problem statement (one or two sentences) for a public health issue of your choice. Briefly describe your target audience, why your chosen issue is important, why it needs to be addressed now, and why policy action is warranted.
Who are the possible key stakeholders for the public health issue identified in your problem statement in DQ 1? What interest would each of these stakeholders have in the public health issue identified? Why is it important to identify key stakeholders in a policy analysis?
Based on available knowledge of vulnerable populations, consider the following scenario: A migrant farm worker in California has injured himself while on the job as a seasonal employee. He does not seek medical treatment for his injury. Considering the social determinants of health, what are some factors that would influence his decision to seek medical care? Use evidence to support your response. How do current policies perpetuate social determinants of health for seasonal migrant farm workers? What policy recommendations would you make to alleviate social determinants of health for this population?
Review the assigned reading "Collaborating for Health: Health in All Policies and the Law." Describe the concept of Health in All Policies (HiAP) and highlight some of the benefits of this approach. What were some of the challenges and lessons learned from California's experience with HiAP, according to the article? Identify and describe another example from the research literature of how HiAP has been successfully applied.
Public health professionals are increasingly needed and expected to have a role in advocacy efforts. Imagine you have received an action alert from your local public health association asking you to contact your state senator and urge the lawmaker to support a bill that would set forth time limits to the supply of opioid prescription drugs (i.e., quantity of drug dispensed would not exceed a 30-day supply) to combat the opioid drug overdose epidemic. How would you respond to the action alert? Refer to tips and suggestions provided by the American Public Health Association (APHA) Advocacy for Public Health webpage. What strategy or approach would you implement to ensure effective communication with your state senator on this issue?
Consider the following scenario: Your city council has approved the placement of a toxic waste dump in a small, low-income community. The company building the dump has hosted informational meetings, but residents rarely attend and are unaware of the proposal. The approval will bring very little economic benefit to the community. The CEO of the company feels that since no one attended the meetings, the approval is valid. Do you agree with the CEO's claim? Why or why not? Consider the principle of social justice and include recommendations for what should have been done prior to the council meeting to ensure that the decision was ethical, fair, and valid. Describe two strategies you would implement to engage this community in advocacy for health equity.
What is public health preparedness? Identify and describe an example of a policy that supports public health preparedness. What are the roles of local, state, federal, and international governments in managing global health emergencies? Describe how diseases and disasters can impact national and global security, as well as impact public health policy.
The World Health Organization (WHO) announced COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020, causing countries to face difficult policy decisions about health security and pandemic response. Describe an example of a challenge faced by governments, both worldwide and at the level of individual countries, that made it more difficult to respond to COVID-19. Why was the global pandemic response to COVID-19 so varied? Explain at least two reasons for the varied policy response.
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