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Leadership Seventh Edition
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Leadership A Communication Perspective
Craig E. Johnson George Fox University
Michael Z. Hackman late of University of Colorado–Colorado Springs
PRESS, INC. Long Grove, Illinois
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For information about this book, contact: Waveland Press, Inc. 4180 IL Route 83, Suite 101 Long Grove, IL 60047-9580 (847) 634-0081 [email protected] www.waveland.com
Copyright © 2018, 2013, 2009, 2004, 2000, 1996, 1991 by Waveland Press, Inc.
10-digit ISBN 1-4786-3502-9 13-digit ISBN 978-1-4786-3502-4
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval sys- tem, or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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� Mike, this one’s for you.
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About the Authors
Craig E. Johnson (PhD, University of Denver) is emeritus professor of leader- ship studies at George Fox University, Newberg, Oregon, where he taught a variety of courses in leadership, ethics, communication, and management at the under- graduate and doctoral level. During his time at the university he served as chair of the Department of Communication Arts and founding director of the George Fox Doctor of Management/Doctor of Business Administration program. Though retired from full-time teaching, Dr. Johnson continues to serve as an adjunct pro- fessor. He is author of Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach (4th ed.) and Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership: Casting Light or Shadow (6th ed.). His articles have appeared in such journals as Communication Quarterly, The Journal of Leadership Studies, The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, Acad- emy of Management Learning and Education, The Journal of Leadership Education, Communication Education, Communication Reports, and International Listening Association Journal. Johnson has served in leadership roles in several nonprofit organizations and has participated in educational and service trips to Kenya, Rwanda, Honduras, Brazil, China, and New Zealand. Professor Johnson is a past recipient of George Fox University’s distinguished teaching award and 2016 recipi- ent of the outstanding graduate faculty researcher award. When he is not writing or teaching, Dr. Johnson enjoys working out, fly fishing, camping, and reading.
Michael Z. Hackman (PhD, University of Denver) was a professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Colorado–Colorado Springs and an adjunct at the Center for Creative Leadership. He taught courses in com- munication, including Foundations of Leadership, Leadership Theory and Practice, Organizational Leadership, Leadership Communication in a Global Environment, and Leadership and Organizational Change. In 1995, he was awarded the univer- sity-wide Outstanding Teacher award. Dr. Hackman’s research focused on a wide range of issues, including the impact of gender and culture on communication and leadership behavior, leadership succession, organizational trust, and creativity. His work appeared in such journals as Communication Education, Communication Quarterly, The Journal of Leadership Studies, Leadership, The Leadership Review,
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and the Southern Speech Communication Journal. He was the coauthor (with Craig Johnson) of Creative Communication: Principles and Applications and (with Pam Shockley-Zalabak and Sherwyn Morreale) of Building the High-Trust Organiza- tion. Dr. Hackman served as a visiting professor at the University of Waikato in Hamilton, New Zealand, on four separate occasions between 1991–2002. He also served as an adjunct professor at the University of Siena (Italy) and the University of Vienna (Austria), and lectured at the China Executive Leadership Academy Pudong in Shanghai and the SP Jain Center of Management in Dubai (UAE).
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The inspiration for this text came while Michael Hackman and I were graduate students at the University of Denver. We agreed to write a book together but weren’t sure what topic to write about. Mike called me a couple of years after we had both graduated to propose a leadership text from a communication vantage point. That collaboration, which produced the previous six editions, was truly a labor of love and served to shape our friendship and our careers.
In 2016 Mike died after battling cancer. The world lost an outstanding educa- tor, scholar, international consultant, professional colleague, friend, and father. This edition is dedicated to him.
Thanks to all who adopted previous editions. Based on your positive response, I remain convinced that there is value in examining leadership from a communica- tion vantage point. To those considering this text for the first time, I hope that it will prove to be a useful tool for both you and your students.
Over the years many students and colleagues provided their own leadership stories along with encouragement, advice, and support. In particular I want to rec- ognize Alvin Goldberg, our mentor at the University of Denver, who was instru- mental in igniting our interest in the topic of leadership.
Thanks to Carol Rowe at Waveland Press who has been a constant source of encouragement and inspiration over the years. Laurie Prossnitz prepared this edi- tion for publication. A number of research assistants from the University of Colo- rado–Colorado Springs and George Fox University helped with the previous editions. Linda Crossland assisted in preparing materials for this version. I am grateful for all of your help. My greatest appreciation, however, is reserved for the Hackman and Johnson families, who lovingly supported our continuing journey to explore the latest developments in leadership.
—Craig E. Johnson
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1 Leadership and Communication 1 Leadership: At the Core of Human Experience 2 Defining Leadership 2
The Symbolic Nature of Human Communication 5 The Human Communication Process 8 Leadership: A Special Form of Human Communication 11 Leaders vs. Managers 13 The Question of “Bad” Leadership 14 The Leader/Follower Relationship 19
Viewing Leadership from a Communication Perspective 21 Willingness to Communicate 21 Storytelling as Leadership 25 Emotional Communication Competencies 27 Playing to a Packed House: Leaders as Impression Managers 31
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 34 APPLICATION EXERCISES 35 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: FOSTERING CIRCLES THROUGH STORIES 36 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: THE BEST OF MEN 37
2 Leadership and Followership Communication Styles 39 The Dimensions of Leadership Communication Style 40 Authoritarian, Democratic, and Laissez-Faire Leadership 40 Task and Interpersonal Leadership 46
The Michigan Leadership Studies 49 The Ohio State Leadership Studies 50 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 53 Blake and McCanse’s Leadership Grid® 54
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Follower Communication Styles 55 Engaged Followers 56 Exemplary Followership 57 The 4-D Followership Model 61 Transcendent Followership 62
Communication Styles, Information Processing, and Identity 63
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 68 APPLICATION EXERCISES 69 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: THE PERFORMANCE-MAINTENANCE (PM)
THEORY OF LEADERSHIP 70 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: IN THE HEART OF THE SEA 71
3 Traits, Situational, Functional, Skills, and 73 Relational Leadership Understanding and Explaining Leadership 74 The Traits Approach to Leadership 75 The Situational Approach to Leadership 81
Path-Goal Theory 81 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Approach 84
The Functional Approach to Leadership 86 Task-Related Roles 88 Group-Building and Maintenance Roles 89 Individual Roles 89
The Skills Approach to Leadership 90 The Three-Skill Model 91 Task-Based Competencies 92 Problem-Solving Capabilities 93
The Relational Approach to Leadership 94 Vertical Dyad Linkage Model 95 Leader-Member Exchange Theory 95
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 99 APPLICATION EXERCISES 100 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP 101 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: CONCUSSION 102
4 Transformational and Charismatic Leadership 105 The Transformational Approach to Leadership 106 The Characteristics of Transformational Leadership 110
Creative 111 Interactive 114 Visionary 117 Empowering 122 Passionate 122
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Perspectives on Charisma 125 The Sociological Approach 126 The Behavioral/Attribution Approach 127 The Communication Approach 130
Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: Interchangeable or Distinct? 132
Alternative Approaches to Outstanding Leadership 134 Authentic Leadership 134 The CIP (Charismatic/Ideological/Pragmatic)
Leadership Model 137 CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 139 APPLICATION EXERCISES 140 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: IS TRANSFORMATIONAL/CHARISMATIC
LEADERSHIP A UNIVERSAL CONCEPT? 141 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: THE MAN IN THE MACHINE 142
5 Leadership and Power 145 Power: Mixed Emotions 146 Power and Leadership 146
Interdependent but Not Interchangeable 146 Sources of Power 147
Deciding Which Types of Power to Use 151 Engaging in Constructive Organizational Politics 153 Powerful and Powerless Talk 156 Empowerment 158
Components of the Empowerment Process 162 Empowerment Models 165
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 172 APPLICATION EXERCISES 173 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: A DIFFERENT VIEW ON POWER—
THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONCEPT OF UBUNTU 174 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN:
STAR WARS EPISODE VII—THE FORCE AWAKENS 175
6 Leadership and Influence 177 Credibility: The Key to Successful Influence 178
Dimensions and Challenges of Credibility 179 Building Your Credibility 180
Compliance-Gaining Strategies 184 Managerial Influence Tactics 184 Upward Dissent 187
Developing Argumentative Competence 189
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The Leader as Negotiator 194 Creating a Cooperative Climate 195 Perspective-Taking Skills 197 Negotiation as Joint Problem Solving 199
Resisting Influence: Defending against the Power of Mental Shortcuts 201
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 207 APPLICATION EXERCISES 208 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: NEGOTIATION IN INDIA 211 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: WOMAN IN GOLD 212
7 Leadership in Groups and Teams 213 Fundamentals of Group Interaction 214
Viewing Groups from a Communication Perspective 214 Group Evolution 216
Emergent Leadership 217 How Not to Emerge as a Leader 217 Useful Strategies 218 Appointed vs. Emergent Leaders 219
Leadership in Meetings 220 Group Decision Making 224
Functions and Formats 224 Avoiding the Pitfalls 228
Team Leadership 232 When Is a Group a Team? 232 Developing Team-Building Skills 235 Project Leadership 237 Leading Virtual Teams 240 Team Coaching 244
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 246 APPLICATION EXERCISES 247 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS:
AMERICAN AND ASIAN STUDENT GROUPS 248 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: THE WAY 249
8 Leadership in Organizations 251 The Leader as Culture Maker 252
Elements of Organizational Culture 252 Shaping Culture 255 Creating a Learning, Trusting Culture 260
The Leader as Strategist 267 The Leader as Sensemaker 271 Intergroup Leadership 277
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The Power of Expectations: The Pygmalion Effect 278 The Communication of Expectations 281 The Galatea Effect 282 Putting Pygmalion to Work 283
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 285 APPLICATION EXERCISES 286 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: PLAYING CATCH-UP IN KOREA 288 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: ALL THINGS MUST PASS 289
9 Public Leadership 291 The Power of Public Leadership 292 Leading Public Opinion through Public Relations 292 Influencing Audiences through Public Address 298
A Key Leadership Tool 298 Developing Effective Public Speeches 300
Persuasive Campaigns 308 Characteristics of Successful Campaigns 309 Campaign Stages 313
Collaborative (Integrative) Leadership 316 Attributes 317 Skills 317 Behaviors 317
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 319 APPLICATION EXERCISES 320 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: PUBLIC SPEAKING IN KENYA 321 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: BRAVEHEART 322
10 Leadership and Diversity 323 Managing Diversity—The Core of Leadership 324 Understanding Cultural Differences 324
Defining Culture 324 Classifying Cultures 326 Cultural Intelligence (CQ) 334 Cultural Synergy 336
Fostering Diversity 338 The Benefits of Diversity 338 Obstacles to Diversity 341 Promoting Diversity: Overcoming the Barriers 342
The Gender Leadership Gap: Breaking the Glass Ceiling, Avoiding the Glass Cliff, and Navigating the Labyrinth 345
Male and Female Leadership Behavior: Is There a Difference? (And Do Women Make Better Leaders?) 347
Creating the Gap 348 Narrowing the Gap 351
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CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 355 APPLICATION EXERCISES 356 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: THE NOT SO UNIVERSAL
LANGUAGE OF SPORTS 357 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: THE HUNDRED-FOOT JOURNEY 359
11 Ethical Leadership and Followership 361 The Importance of Ethics 362 The Ethical Challenges of Leadership:
Casting Light or Shadow 362 The Challenge of Information Management 362 The Challenge of Responsibility 364 The Challenge of Power 366 The Challenge of Privilege 367 The Challenge of Loyalty 368 The Challenge of Consistency 368
Components of Ethical Behavior 370 Component 1: Moral Sensitivity (Recognition) 370 Component 2: Moral Judgment 371 Component 3: Moral Motivation 371 Component 4: Moral Character (Implementation) 372
Ethical Perspectives 374 Kant’s Categorical Imperative 374 Utilitarianism 375 Justice as Fairness 375 Virtue Ethics 377 Altruism 382 Leaders as Servants 385
Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Followership 389 Servant Followership 391 Courageous Followership 391
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 395 APPLICATION EXERCISES 397 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: MORAL TASTE BUDS 398 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: ANGELS IN THE DUST 399
12 Leader and Leadership Development 401 Leader Development: A Lifelong Journey 402 A Proactive Approach to Leader Development 402
Raise Your Developmental Readiness Level 403 Seek Out Leadership Learning Opportunities 404 Establish Developmental Relationships 407 Capitalize on Your Experiences 412
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Leader Development as an Internal Process 419 Stephen Covey: The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People 419 Kevin Cashman: Leadership from the Inside Out 421 The Role of Spirituality in Leader Development 422
Leadership Transitions 425 Leadership Passages 426 Taking Charge 428 Succession Planning 431
CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 433 APPLICATION EXERCISES 434 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: COACHING ACROSS CULTURES 435 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: THE INTERN 436
13 Leadership in Crisis 437 The Crucible of Crisis 438 Anatomy of a Crisis 439
Crisis Types 439 Crisis Stages 440
Crisis Leadership 443 Precrisis Leadership 444 Leading during the Crisis Event 451 Postcrisis Leadership 455
Extreme Leadership 466 CHAPTER TAKEAWAYS 469 APPLICATION EXERCISES 471 CULTURAL CONNECTIONS: BATTLING EBOLA AND CULTURE 472 LEADERSHIP ON THE BIG SCREEN: PATRIOTS DAY 473
Endnotes 475 Bibliography 519 Index 562
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Readers of the previous editions of Leadership: A Communication Perspective will note a variety of changes. New material and research highlights have been added on a number of topics. For instance: transcendent followership, the leader- ship skills approach, alternative pathways to outstanding leadership, team coach- ing, escalation of commitment, strategy, invisible leadership, cultural intelligence, raising leadership development readiness, 360-degree feedback, trigger events, sit- uational crisis communication theory, and resilience. You’ll find revised coverage of a number of other topics, including, for example, identity and leadership, the traits approach, authentic leadership theory, Taoism, public relations, and persua- sive campaigns.
Examples, sources, and cases have been updated throughout the book. All of the films and documentaries described in the Leadership on the Big Screen feature at the end of every chapter are new to this edition as are a majority of the Cultural Connections features. There are new case studies on The Container Store, Alibaba's Jack Ma, Zappos, Airbnb, Sheryl Sandberg, Uber, Colombian President Juan Man- uel Santos, Waffle House, Chipotle, and leadership in Antarctica. New self-assess- ments measure readers’ perceptions of emotional language, personal leadership style, motivation to lead, organization-public relationships, cultural intelligence, servant leadership, and personal leadership skills. Leadership: A Communication Perspective continues to integrate theory and practice. Each chapter blends discus- sion of research and theory with practical suggestions for improving leadership effectiveness. Chapter takeaways highlight important concepts and action steps. Application exercises provide the opportunity to further explore and practice chap- ter concepts.
Chapter 1 examines the relationship between leadership and communication with an in-depth look at the nature of leadership, both good and bad, and the leader/ follower relationship. Chapter 2 surveys the research on leader and follower com- munication styles as well as the link between information processing, identity, and style selection. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize the development of leadership theory with an overview of the traits, situational, functional, relational, transformational,
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charismatic, CIP, and authentic approaches. Chapters 5 and 6 focus on two ele- ments—power and influence—that are essential to the practice of leadership.
The next three chapters provide an overview of leadership in specific contexts. Chapter 7 introduces group and team leadership and describes the special chal- lenges of leading project and virtual teams. Chapter 8 is a discussion of organiza- tional leadership with particular focus on the creation of culture, developing strategy, sense making, and the communication of expectations. Chapter 9 exam- ines the power of public leadership, highlighting public relations, public speaking, and persuasive campaigns.
The final four chapters look at important leadership issues. Chapter 10 describes the impact of cultural differences on leading and following, how to foster diversity, and how to narrow the gender leadership gap. Chapter 11 outlines the ethical challenges facing leaders and followers, components of ethical behavior, and ethical perspectives that can guide both leaders and followers. Chapter 12 identifies proactive leader development strategies as well as tools for managing leadership transitions. Chapter 13 examines the role of leadership in preventing and responding to crises and addresses leadership in extreme contexts.
As noted in the preface to previous editions, this text is designed as an intro- duction to leadership from a communication vantage point, not as the final word (as if there could be one) on the topic. Please consider Leadership: A Communica- tion Perspective as our contribution to a continuing dialogue with you on the sub- jects of leading and following. Throughout the book we’ll invite you to disagree with our conclusions, generate additional insights of your own, debate controver- sial issues, and explore topics in depth through research projects, reflection papers, and small group discussions. We hope you will discover additional topics that you think are essential to the study and practice of leadership and will investi- gate them on your own.
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Leadership and Communication
� Leadership is action, not position.
OVERVIEW Leadership: At the Core of Human Experience Defining Leadership
The Symbolic Nature of Human Communication The Human Communication Process Leadership: A Special Form of Human Communication Leaders vs. Managers The Question of “Bad” Leadership The Leader/Follower Relationship
Viewing Leadership from a Communication Perspective Willingness to Communicate Storytelling as Leadership Emotional Communication Competencies Playing to a Packed House: Leaders as Impression Managers
2 Chapter One
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Leadership: At the Core of Human Experience Leadership attracts universal attention. Historians, philosophers, and social
scientists have attempted to understand and to explain leadership for centuries. From Confucius to Plato to Machiavelli, many of the world’s most renowned think- ers have theorized about how people lead one another.1 One reason for the fascina- tion with this subject lies in the very nature of human experience. Leadership is all around us. We get up in the morning, open up our tablets or smart phones, turn on our computer, radio, or television, and discover what actions leaders all over the world have taken. We attend classes, go to work, and interact in social groups—all with their own distinct patterns of leadership. Our daily experiences with leader- ship are not that different from the experiences of individuals in other cultures. Leadership is an integral part of human life in rural tribal cultures as well as in modern industrialized nations. Assessing your past leadership efforts can provide a good starting point for understanding why the success of leadership often varies so significantly. Identify your own best and worst leadership moments and what you learned from these experiences by completing the self-assessment exercise in box 1.1.
Followers prosper under effective leaders and suffer under ineffective leaders whatever the context: government, corporation, church, mosque or synagogue, school, athletic team, or class project group. The study of leadership, then, is more than academic. Understanding leadership has practical importance for all of us. (See the case study in box 1.2 for a dramatic example of how important leadership can be.) In this text we will examine leadership in a wide variety of situations. The perspective, however, remains the same—leadership is best understood from a communication standpoint. As Gail Fairhurst and Robert Sarr explain, effective leaders use language as their most tangible tool for achieving desired outcomes.2 Let’s begin our exploration of leadership by considering the special nature of human communication and the unique qualities of leadership.
Defining Leadership As noted above, leadership is a fundamental element of the human condition.
Wherever society exists, leadership exists. Any definition of leadership must account for its universal nature. Leadership seems to be linked to what it means to be human. As communication specialists, we believe that what makes us unique as humans is our ability to create and manipulate symbols.
� I take leadership to signify the act of making a difference.
Leadership and Communication 3
Box 1.1 Self-Assessment Your Best and Worst Leadership Moment3
We all have had leadership success at some point. Whether in high school, college, in a music group, in sports, in a condominium association or religious group, or on the job, we have all accomplished goals through other people. We have all acted as leaders. Looking back over your experiences, what is the moment that you are most proud of as a leader? Describe the details of that moment below.
Not only have we had leadership success, we’ve also endured leadership failure. Becoming a leader requires reflecting on and learning from past miscues so that you don’t repeat errors. What was your worst experience as a leader? Record your thoughts in the space below.
Given the best and worst leadership experiences you identified, consider the lessons you have learned about leadership in the past. In working through this assessment it can be very helpful to share your leadership stories with others so that you have a richer set of examples from which to compile a list of leadership lessons. The lessons learned from past leadership experiences might be things like: It is difficult to succeed as a leader when followers are not motivated; leadership works best when you have a clear sense of direction; or a leader must be sure his or her message is under- stood to ensure followers stay involved. Try to identify 10 leadership lessons your experiences (and, if possible, those of others) have provided.
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4 Chapter One
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Box 1.2 Case Study Death and Heroism on the Savage Mountain4
Mountaineers call K2 the Savage Mountain. The world’s second tallest peak, K2 claims a greater percentage of climbers (1 in 3) than Mt. Everest, the world’s tallest mountain (1 in 10). Fewer than 300 climbers have topped K2 as compared to over 3,000 on Mt. Everest. The Savage Mountain is not only steeper and harder to climb than Mt. Everest; its location further north makes it even more susceptible to bad weather. There are only a few days when high winds and snow abate, allowing climbers to attempt to reach the summit at over 27,000 feet.
In summer 2008, ten expeditions made up of members from Serbia, the United States, France, South Korea, the Netherlands, Italy, Nepal, and Pakistan huddled in their small tents at the high- est camp on K2 waiting for the weather to break. Because so many people were on the mountain, team leaders knew they had to coordinate their efforts, particularly to navigate the Bottleneck. The Bottleneck is a narrow, sheer section of trail that requires climbers to go single file. At the Bot- tleneck, a slow climber can delay all those who follow. Team leaders agreed that on the day of the summit one group would go first and lay out ropes for the other teams to use as they ascended and descended the Bottleneck. Another group would put willow wands in the snow to mark the path back to camp.
On August 1 the weather cleared and 20 climbers launched their mass assault on the summit. Problems arose almost immediately. The lead team didn’t have enough rope and started to lay rope too soon so that there wasn’t enough to reach the top of the Bottleneck. The wands weren’t planted. The only climber to have previously made it to the top took sick and couldn’t summit. Some groups were slow to start and, as feared, a cluster of climbers got stuck below the Bottle- neck, waiting to ascend. A Serbian fell to his death during the initial ascent and another climber died while trying to retrieve his body.
Descending in darkness is highly dangerous, as is bivouacking at 27,000 feet without shelter in intense cold. To avoid these dangers, climbers should have turned back by 2 PM. Instead, most pressed on to the top, not reaching their goal until much later. Eighteen reached the summit—a K2 record—with the last team arriving at 7 PM. As a result, some decided to stop for the night while others made their way back down the mountain. That’s when disaster struck. A huge over- hanging piece of ice broke off. Tumbling through the Bottleneck, it buried one climber and scoured away the ropes. Subsequent icefalls and avalanches, as well as the elements, disorienta- tion, and deadly climbing conditions, would take additional lives. The total death toll was 11, making this one of the worst mountaineering disasters ever.
While nothing could have prevented the huge icefall, the loss of life was greater than it should have been. To begin, members of the various expeditions never bonded but instead remained strangers. They had difficulty communicating with each other because of language differences, and operated independently. Members of some teams were highly critical of the preparation and skills of those on other teams. This apparently contributed to a disregard for human life when the crisis struck. Far too many ignored those in need, failing to offer assistance to those likely to per- ish. According to a Dutch survivor, “Everybody was fighting for himself and I still do not under- stand why everybody were leaving each other.”
Summit fever drove many to continue to climb when they should have turned back, putting them at high risk. So close to reaching their goal, they feared that they would never have another chance to reach their objective. Some had corporate sponsors and felt additional pres- sure to summit. The high-altitude porters had an incentive to support their efforts because they would earn a $1000 bonus if their clients succeeded. Those on the …
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