One of the seminal studies and theories related to change management is Kurt Lewin’s Change Theory. Components of his work are identified in many other theories, so understanding this theory offers insight into the change management process. In this assignment, provide a brief overview of Lewin’s Change Theory, including his rationale for creating this theory and the intended role this model addresses in change management. Then discuss the three stages of change implementation and explain the importance of each stage. Be sure to use the terminology for each stage of Lewin’s Change Theory as outlined in the text. Finally, Lewin’s Change Theory was created in the 1940s. Is the theory still applicable in today’s global economy? How would you modify/alter his theory to ensure that it remains relevant and applicable in Saudi Arabia? Discuss any changes to be made to his theory to reflect today’s business environment, both globally and in Saudi Arabia.Your well-written paper should meet the following requirements:
MGT530 Critical Thinking Writing Rubric – Module 2
Meets Expectation Below Expectation Limited Evidence
Content, Research, and Analysis
21-25 Points 16-20 Points 11-15 Points 6-10 Points
Requirements Includes all of the required components, as specified in the assignment.
Includes most of the required components, as specified in the assignment.
Includes some of the required components, as specified in the assignment.
Includes few of the required components, as specified in the assignment.
21-25 Points 16-20 Points 11-15 Points 6-10 Points
Content Demonstrates substantial and extensive knowledge of the materials, with no errors or major omissions.
Demonstrates adequate knowledge of the materials; may include some minor errors or omissions.
Demonstrates fair knowledge of the materials and/or includes some major errors or omissions.
Fails to demonstrate knowledge of the materials and/or includes many major errors or omissions.
25-30 Points 19-24 Points 13-18 Points 7-12 Points
Analysis Provides strong thought, insight, and analysis of concepts and applications.
Provides adequate thought, insight, and analysis of concepts and applications.
Provides poor though, insight, and analysis of concepts and applications.
Provides little or no thought, insight, and analysis of concepts and applications.
13-15 Points 10-12 Points 7-9 Points 4-6 Points
Sources Sources go above and beyond required criteria and are well chosen to provide effective substance and perspectives on the issue under examination.
Sources meet required criteria and are adequately chosen to provide substance and perspectives on the issue under examination.
Sources meet required criteria but are poorly chosen to provide substance and perspectives on the issue under examination.
Source selection and integration of knowledge from the course is clearly deficient.
Mechanics and Writing
5 Points 4 Points 3 Points 1-2 Points
Demonstrates college-level proficiency in organization, grammar and style.
Project is clearly organized, well written, and in proper format as outlined in the assignment. Strong sentence and paragraph structure, contains no errors in grammar, spelling,
Project is fairly well organized and written and is in proper format as outlined in the assignment. Reasonably good sentence and paragraph structure, may include a few
Project is poorly organized and written and may not follow proper format as outlined in the assignment. Inconsistent to inadequate sentence and paragraph development,
Project is not organized or well written and is not in proper format as outlined in the assignment. Poor quality work; unacceptable in terms of grammar, spelling, APA style,
MGT530 Critical Thinking Writing Rubric – Module 2
APA style, or APA citations and references.
minor errors in grammar, spelling, APA style, or APA citations and references.
and/or includes numerous or major errors in grammar, spelling, APA style or APA citations and references.
and APA citations and references.
Total points possible = 100
Organizational Change Fourth Edition
This book is dedicated to Tupper Cawsey,
our dear and wonderful friend, colleague, and extraordinary educator.
He passed away, but his positive impact continues to reverberate in those he touched.
Thank you, Tupper.
Gene and Cynthia
An Action-Oriented Toolkit
Gene Deszca Wilfrid Laurier University
Cynthia Ingols Simmons University Tupper F. Cawsey
Wilfrid Laurier University
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Deszca, Gene, author. | Ingols, Cynthia, author. | Cawsey, T. F., author/
Title: Organizational change : an action-oriented toolkit / Gene Deszca, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada, Cynthia Ingols – Simmons College, USA, Tupper F. Cawsey – Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada.
Other titles: Organisational change
Description: Fourth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications,  | Revised edition of Organizational change,  | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2019013498 | ISBN 9781544351407 (paperback)
Subjects: LCSH: Organizational change.
Classification: LCC HD58.8 .C39 2019 | DDC 658.4/06—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019013498
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Copy Editor: Lynne Curry
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Brief Contents 1. Preface 2. Acknowledgments 3. Chapter 1 • Changing Organizations in Our Complex World 4. Chapter 2 • How to Lead Organizational Change:
Frameworks 5. Chapter 3 • What to Change in an Organization: Frameworks 6. Chapter 4 • Building and Energizing the Need for Change 7. Chapter 5 • Navigating Change through Formal Structures
and Systems 8. Chapter 6 • Navigating Organizational Politics and Culture 9. Chapter 7 • Managing Recipients of Change and Influencing
Internal Stakeholders 10. Chapter 8 • Becoming a Master Change Agent 11. Chapter 9 • Action Planning and Implementation 12. Chapter 10 • Get and Use Data Throughout the Change
Process 13. Chapter 11 • The Future of Organizations and the Future of
Change 14. Notes 15. Index 16. About the Authors
Detailed Contents Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1 • Changing Organizations in Our Complex World
Defining Organizational Change The Orientation of This Book
Environmental Forces Driving Change Today The Implications of Worldwide Trends for Change Management
Four Types of Organizational Change Planned Changes Don’t Always Produce the Intended Results
Organizational Change Roles Change Initiators Change Implementers Change Facilitators Common Challenges for Managerial Roles Change Recipients
The Requirements for Becoming a Successful Change Leader Summary Key Terms End-of-Chapter Exercises
Chapter 2 • How to Lead Organizational Change: Frameworks
Differentiating How to Change from What to Change The Processes of Organizational Change (1) Stage Theory of Change: Lewin
Unfreeze Change Refreeze: or more appropriately Re-gell
(2) Stage Model of Organizational Change: Kotter Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process
(3) Giving Voice to Values: Gentile GVV and Organizational Change
(4) Emotional Transitions Through Change: Duck Duck’s Five-Stage Change Curve
(5) Managing the Change Process: Beckhard and Harris
(6) The Change Path Model: Deszca and Ingols Application of the Change Path Model
Awakening: Why Change? Mobilization: Activating the Gap Analysis Acceleration: Getting from Here to There Institutionalization: Using Data to Help Make the Change Stick
Summary Key Terms End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: “Not an Option to Even Consider:” Contending With the Pressures to Compromise by Heather Bodman and Cynthia Ingols
Chapter 3 • What to Change in an Organization: Frameworks Open Systems Approach to Organizational Analysis (1) Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model
History and Environment Strategy The Transformation Process Work The Formal Organization The Informal Organization People Outputs An Example Using Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model Evaluating Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model
(2) Sterman’s Systems Dynamics Model (3) Quinn’s Competing Values Model (4) Greiner’s Model of Organizational Growth (5) Stacey’s Complexity Theory Summary Key Terms End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: Sarah’s Snacks by Paul Myers Chapter 4 • Building and Energizing the Need for Change
Understanding the Need for Change Seek Out and Make Sense of External Data
Seek Out and Make Sense of the Perspectives of Stakeholders Seek Out and Make Sense of Internal Data Seek Out and Assess Your Personal Concerns and Perspectives
Assessing the Readiness for Change Heightening Awareness of the Need for Change Factors That Block People from Recognizing the Need for Change
Developing a Powerful Vision for Change The Difference Between an Organizational Vision and a Change Vision Examples of Visions for Change
IBM—Diversity 3.0 Tata’s Nano: From Vision to Failed Project Change Vision for the “Survive to 5” Program Change Vision for “Reading Rainbow” Change Vision for a Large South African Winemaker Change Vision for the Procurement System in a Midsize Manufacturing Firm
Summary Key Terms A Checklist for Change: Creating the Readiness for Change End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: Leading Change: The Pharmacy Team by Jess Coppla
Chapter 5 • Navigating Change through Formal Structures and Systems
Making Sense of Formal Structures and Systems Impact of Uncertainty and Complexity on Formal Structures and Systems Formal Structures and Systems From an Information Perspective
Aligning Systems and Structures With the Environment Structural Changes to Handle Increased Uncertainty Making Formal Structural Choices
Using Structures and Systems to Influence the Approval and Implementation of Change
Using Formal Structures and Systems to Advance Change Using Systems and Structures to Obtain Formal Approval of a Change Project Using Systems to Enhance the Prospects for Approval Ways to Approach the Approval Process
Aligning Strategically, Starting Small, and “Morphing” Tactics The Interaction of Structures and Systems with Change During Implementation Using Structures and Systems to Facilitate the Acceptance of Change Summary Key Terms Checklist: Change Initiative Approval End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: Beck Consulting Corporation by Cynthia Ingols and Lisa Brem
Chapter 6 • Navigating Organizational Politics and Culture Power Dynamics in Organizations
Individual Power Departmental Power
Organizational Culture and Change How to Analyze a Culture Tips for Change Agents to Assess a Culture
Tools to Assess the Need for Change Identifying the Organizational Dynamics at Play
Summary Key Terms Checklist: Stakeholder Analysis End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: Patrick’s Problem by Stacy Blake- Beard
Chapter 7 • Managing Recipients of Change and Influencing Internal Stakeholders
Stakeholders Respond Variably to Change Initiatives Not Everyone Sees Change as Negative
Responding to Various Feelings in Stakeholders
Positive Feelings in Stakeholders: Channeling Their Energy Ambivalent Feelings in Stakeholders: They Can Be Useful Negative Reactions to Change by Stakeholders: These Too Can Be Useful
Make the Change of the Psychological Contract Explicit and Transparent
Predictable Stages in the Reaction to Change Stakeholders’ Personalities Influence Their Reactions to Change Prior Experience Impacts a Person’s and Organization’s Perspective on Change Coworkers Influence Stakeholders’ Views Feelings About Change Leaders Make a Difference
Integrity is One Antidote to Skepticism and Cynicism Avoiding Coercion but Pushing Hard: The Sweet Spot? Creating Consistent Signals from Systems and Processes Steps to Minimize the Negative Effects of Change
Engagement Timeliness Two-Way Communication
Make Continuous Improvement the Norm Encourage People to Be Change Agents and Avoid the Recipient Trap Summary Key Terms Checklist: How to Manage and Minimize Cynicism About Change End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: Travelink Solutions by Noah Deszca and Gene Deszca
Chapter 8 • Becoming a Master Change Agent Factors That Influence Change Agent Success
The Interplay of Personal Attributes, Situation, and Vision Change Leaders and Their Essential Characteristics
Developing into a Change Leader
Intention, Education, Self-Discipline, and Experience What Does Reflection Mean?
Developmental Stages of Change Leaders Four Types of Change Leaders Internal Consultants: Specialists in Change External Consultants: Specialized, Paid Change Agents
Provide Subject-Matter Expertise Bring Fresh Perspectives from Ideas That Have Worked Elsewhere Provide Independent, Trustworthy Support Limitations of External Consultants
Change Teams Change from the Middle: Everyone Needs to Be a Change Agent Rules of Thumb for Change Agents Summary Key Terms Checklist: Structuring Work in a Change Team End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: Master Change Agent: Katherine Gottlieb, Southcentral Foundation by Erin E. Sullivan
Chapter 9 • Action Planning and Implementation Without a “Do It” Orientation, Things Won’t Happen Prelude to Action: Selecting the Correct Path Plan the Work
Engage Others in Action Planning Ensure Alignment in Your Action Planning
Action Planning Tools 1. To-Do Lists 2. Responsibility Charting 3. Contingency Planning 4. Flow Charting 5. Design Thinking 6. Surveys and Survey Feedback 7. Project Planning and Critical Path Methods 8. Tools to Assess Forces That Affect Outcomes and Stakeholders
9. Leverage Analysis 10. Employee Training and Development 11. Diverse Change Approaches
Working the Plan Ethically and Adaptively Developing a Communication Plan Timing and Focus of Communications Key Principles in Communicating for Change Influence Strategies
Transition Management Summary Key Terms End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: Turning Around Cote Construction Company by Cynthia Ingols, Gene Deszca, and Tupper F. Cawsey
Chapter 10 • Get and Use Data Throughout the Change Process
Selecting and Deploying Measures 1. Focus on Key Factors 2. Use Measures That Lead to Challenging but Achievable Goals 3. Use Measures and Controls That Are Perceived as Fair and Appropriate 4. Avoid Sending Mixed Signals 5. Ensure Accurate Data 6. Match the Precision of the Measure With the Ability to Measure
Measurement Systems and Change Management Data Used as Guides During Design and Early Stages of the Change Project Data Used as Guides in the Middle of the Change Project Data Used as Guides Toward the End of the Change Project
Other Measurement Tools Strategy Maps The Balanced Scorecard Risk Exposure Calculator The DICE Model
Key Terms Checklist: Creating a Balanced Scorecard End-of-Chapter Exercises
➡ Case Study: Omada Health: Making the Case for Digital Health by Erin E. Sullivan and Jessica L. Alpert
Chapter 11 • The Future of Organizations and the Future of Change
Putting the Change Path Model into Practice Future Organizations and Their Impact Becoming an Organizational Change Agent: Specialists and Generalists Paradoxes in Organizational Change Orienting Yourself to Organizational Change Summary End-of-Chapter Exercises
Notes Index About the Authors
Preface to the Fourth Edition Difficult to see. Always in motion is the future.1
1 Spoken by Yoda in the movie The Empire Strikes Back
The world has continued to churn in very challenging ways since the publishing of the third edition of this text. Uneven and shifting global patterns of growth, stubbornly high unemployment levels in many parts of the world, increasing income inequality, and serious trade disputes that threaten to transform trade patterns are severely stressing our highly interconnected global economy. The massive credit crisis of a decade ago was followed by unprecedented worldwide government stimulus spending and low interest rates to promote growth, which, in turn, have resulted in escalating public debt, exacerbated in some nations through tax cuts. These combine to threaten the capacity of national governments to respond to future economic difficulties.
In addition, wars, insurrections and civil insurrections in parts of Africa, the Ukraine, the Middle East, and Asia have sent masses of people searching for safety in new places. Simultaneously, deteriorating international relationships involving major powers, fears of global pandemics (Ebola and MERS), and the staying power of radical Islamist groups such as al-Qaeda and ISIS affiliates, Boko Haram and Jemaah Islamiyah have shaken all organizations in affected regions—big or small, public or private. Escalating concerns related to global warming, species extinctions, and rising sea levels are stressing those who recognize the problems in governments and organizations of all shapes and sizes, as they attempt to figure out how to constructively address these emerging realities. Add to these elements the accelerating pace of technological change and it’s easy to see why we, at times, feel overwhelmed by the turbulence, uncertainty, and negative prognosis that seem to define the present.
But, all is not doom and gloom. Progress on human rights and gender equity, reductions in extreme poverty and hunger, declining rates of murder and violent crime, improving rates of literacy and life expectancy, and increasing access to information and knowledge through affordable digital resources provide evidence that progress is being made on some fronts. The growing public willingness to tackle very difficult environmental and social issues now, not later, are combining with innovative technologies, creative for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, and forward-thinking politicians and leaders from all walks of life. Supportive public policies are combining with public and private initiatives to demonstrate that we can make serious progress on these issues, if we collectively choose to act in constructive and thoughtful manners locally, regionally, and globally. These factors have also made us, your authors, much more aware of the extreme influence of the external environment on the internal workings of all organizations.
As we point out in our book, the smallest of firms needs to adapt when new competitive realities and opportunities surface. Even the largest and most successful of firms have to learn how to adapt when disruptive technologies or rapid social, economic, political and environmental changes alter their realities. If they fail to do so, they will falter and potentially fail.
Our models have always included and often started with events external to organizations. We have always argued that change leaders need to scan their environments and be aware of trends and crises in those environments. The events of the past two years have reinforced even more our sense of this. Managers must be sensitive to what happens around them, know how to make sense of this, and then have the skills and abilities that will allow them to both react effectively to the internal and external challenges and remain constant in their visions and dreams of how to make their organizations and the world a better place to live.
A corollary of this is that organizations need a response capability that is unprecedented because we’re playing on a global stage of increasing complexity and uncertainty. If you are a bank, you need
a capital ratio that would have been unprecedented a few years ago, and you need to be working hard to understand the potential implications of blockchain technologies, regulatory changes, and changing consumer preferences on the future of banking. If you are a major organization, you need to design flexibility and adaptability into your structures, policies, and plans. If you are a public-sector organization, you need to be sensitive to how capricious granting agencies or funders will be when revenues dry up. In today’s world, organizational resilience, adaptability, and agility gain new prominence.
Further, we are challenged with a continuing reality that change is endemic. All managers need to be change managers. All good managers are change leaders. The management job involves creating, anticipating, encouraging, engaging others, and responding positively to change. This has been a theme of this book that continues. Change management is for everyone. Change management emerges from the bottom and middle of the organization as much as from the top. It will be those key leaders who are embedded in the organization who will enable the needed adaptation of the organization to its environment. Managers of all stripes need to be key change leaders.
In addition to the above, we have used feedback on the third edition to strengthen the pragmatic orientation that we had developed. The major themes of action orientation, analysis tied with doing, the management of a nonlinear world, and the bridging of the “knowing–doing” gap continue to be central themes. At the same time, we have tried to shift to a more user friendly, action perspective. To make the material more accessible to a diversity of readers, some theoretical material has been altered, some of our models have been clarified and simplified, and some of our language and formatting has been modified.
As we stated in the preface to the first edition, our motivation for this book was to fill a gap we saw in the marketplace. Our challenge was to develop a book that not only gave prescriptive advice, “how-to-do-it lists,” but one that also provided up-to-date theory without getting sidetracked by academic theoretical complexities. We hope that we have captured the management
experience with change so that our manuscript assists all those who must deal with change, not just senior executives or organization development specialists. Although there is much in this book for the senior executive and organizational development specialist, our intent was to create a book that would be valuable to a broad cross section of the workforce.
Our personal beliefs form the basis for the book. Even as academics, we have a bias for action. We believe that “doing is healthy.” Taking action creates influence and demands responses from others. While we believe in the need for excellent analysis, we know that action itself provides opportunities for feedback and learning that can improve the action. Finally, we have a strong belief in the worth of people. In particular, we believe that one of the greatest sources of improvement is the untapped potential to be found in the people of all organizations.
We recognize that this book is not an easy read. It is not meant to be. It is meant as a serious text for those involved in change—that is, all managers! We hope you find it a book that you will want to keep and pull from your shelf in the years ahead, when you need to lead change and you want help thinking it through.
Gene, Cynthia, and Tupper
Note on Instructor Teaching Site
A password-protected instructor’s manual is available at study.sagepub.com/cawsey to help instructors plan and teach their courses. These resources have been designed to help instructors make the classes as practical and interesting as possible for students.
PowerPoint Slides capture key concepts and terms for each chapter for use in lectures and review.
A Test Bank includes multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay exam questions for each chapter.
Video Resources for each chapter help launch class discussion.
Sample Syllabi, Assignments, and Chapter Exercises as optional supplements to course curriculum.
Case Studies and teaching notes for each chapter facilitate application of concepts in real world situations.
We would like to acknowledge the many people who have helped to make this edition of the book possible. Our colleagues and students and their reactions to the ideas and materials continue to be a source of inspiration.
Cynthia would like to thank her colleagues at the School of Business, Simmons University, Boston, Massachusetts. In particular, she would like to thank Dr. Stacy Blake-Beard, Deloitte Ellen Gabriel Chair of Women and Leadership, and Dr. Paul Myers, senior lecturer, who each contributed a case to this fourth edition of the book. In addition, Paul graciously read and gave feedback on other cases and parts of the text, suggesting ways to bring clarity to sometimes muddled meanings. Alissa Scheibert, a Simmons library science student, conducted in-depth research for a number of chapters. Dr. Erin Sullivan, research director, and Jessica L. Alpert, researcher, Center for Primary Care, Harvard Medical School, contributed two cases to this edition of the book and I am very grateful for their contributions. Jess Coppla, a former Healthcare MBA student leader and author of one of the cases, will someday be CEO of a healthcare organization. . . . I’m just waiting to see which one. Colleagues Gary Gaumer, Cathy Robbins, Bob Coulum, Todd Hermann, Mindy Nitkin, and Mary Shapiro were wonderful cheerleaders throughout the many hours of my sitting, writing, and revising in my office: thank you all!
Managers, executives, and front-line employees that we have known have provided insights, case examples, and applications while keeping us focused on what is useful and relevant. Ellen Zane, former CEO of Tufts Medical Center, Boston, is an inspiring change leader; her turnaround story at the Tufts Medical Center appeared in the second edition of this book and was published again in the third edition; it continues to be on the Sage website for use by faculty. Cynthia has also been fortunate to work with and learn from Gretchen Fox, founder and former CEO, FOX RPM: the story of how she changed her small firm appeared in the second edition of the book and the case continues to be available
through Harvard Business Publishing (http://hbr.org/product/fox- relocation-management-corp/an/NA0096-PDF-ENG). Noah Deszca, a high school teacher, was the prime author of the Travelink Solutions case, an organization that underwent significant changes while he was working there. Katharine Bambrick, a former student of Gene’s and the CEO of the Ontario Trillium Foundation and the former CEO of Food Banks Canada, is another of the inspiring leaders who opened their organizations to us and allowed us to learn from their experiences, and share it with you. The Food Banks case appeared in the third edition of this book and is one of the additional cases that are available on this book’s website.
Special thanks to Paige Tobie for all her hard work on the instructors’ resources. She is a gem to work with.
As with the previous editions, our partners Bertha Welzel and Steve Spitz tolerated our moods, our myopia to other things that needed doing, and the early mornings and late nights spent on the manuscript. They helped us work our way through ideas and sections that were problematic, and they kept us smiling and grounded when frustration mounted.
Our editors at Sage have been excellent. They moved the project along and made a difficult process fun (well, most of the time). Thank you, Maggie Stanley, our acquisitions editor, for keeping us on task and on time (or trying to keep us on time…). We appreciate your style of gentle nudges. Thank you to Janeane Calderon, our editorial assistant who was constantly on top of the various parts of the book and helped us push through to the end. Copyeditor Lynne Curry found stray commas and inconsistencies throughout the book: thank you for fixing the problems. Gagan Mahindra, Production Editor, kept us wonderfully focused on the details of production: thank you!
Finally, we would like to recognize the reviewers who provided us with valuable feedback on the third edition. Their constructive, positive feedback and their excellent suggestions were valued. We thought carefully about how to incorporate their suggestions into this fourth edition of the book. Thank you Mulugeta Agonafer
of Springfield College, Brenda C. Barnes of Allen College, C. Darren Brooks of Florida State University, Robert Dibie of Indiana University Kokomo, Jonathan E. Downs of MidAmerica Nazarene University, Alexander C. Heckman of Franklin University, Scott Elmes McIntyre of University of Houston – Clear Lake, Frank Novakowski of Davenport University, Pamela R. Van Dyke of Southern Methodist University, Jack Wilson of the United States Naval Academy,
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