This week is based on different readings, power points, and THE MOVIE SOCIAL DILEMMA. AI, using technology in and related to sport industry can take us into very different directions. I tried to make the information for you as diverse as possible this week. The readings are related to Esport – as a product innovation as well as a creative addition to existing sport related products as service. The presentations relate to utilization of AI in marketing (neuromarketing specifically) as well as in sport journalism and broadcasting. The movie – again please find it anyway you can – a thought provoking approach into the present and future of the relationship between humans and technology (I do not want to say robots). You I am sure can easily find also articles about how robots starting to report and create the news (The Guardian a couple of weeks ago) or even how anchors in some programs have been replaced by robots…..but also if you just refer to health/hospital conditions under the circumstances we live in we hear how robots can be extremely useful for helping out the nurses especially under pandemic or making people with disabilities or elderly taken care of better than humans could do. Our guest lecturer also mentioned how controversial is the use of technology if that mix up with our existing umpire development system….So how should we look at this new reality? How would and should robots and humans live together? And what type of technology can be useful for the sport industry's (healthy) future?
Please based on the readings, ppts, and /or the movie go ahead and pick one aspect you are more interested in – and write a 3-page APA cited paper on how AI affects, influences, changes one sport of your choice. (or one sport related industry, service).
The paper should make clear what is the AI you are referring to; whom does it affect the most; what type of changes it generates; and whether is there ethical considerations we should be aware of.
PLEASE KEEP IN MIND THIS IS A CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN *SPORTS* CLASS! I HAVE ATTACHED EVERYTHING NEEDED!
J Gambl Stud https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-018-9763-1
The Psychology of Esports: A Systematic Literature Review
Fanni Bányai1,2 · Mark D. Griffiths3 · Orsolya Király1 · Zsolt Demetrovics1
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
Abstract Recently, the skill involved in playing and mastering video games has led to the professionalization of the activity in the form of ‘esports’ (electronic sports). The aim of the present paper was to review the main topics of psychological interest about esports and then to examine the similarities of esports to professional and problem gambling. As a result of a systematic literature search, eight studies were identified that had investigated three topics: (1) the process of becoming an esport player, (2) the characteristics of esport players such as mental skills and motivations, and (3) the motivations of esport spectators. These findings draw attention to the new research field of professional video game playing and provides some preliminary insight into the psychology of esports players. The paper also examines the similarities between esport players and professional gamblers (and more specifically poker players). It is suggested that future research should focus on esport play- ers’ psychological vulnerability because some studies have begun to investigate the differ- ence between problematic and professional gambling and this might provide insights into whether the playing of esports could also be potentially problematic for some players.
Keywords Esport · Professional video gaming · Competitive video gaming · Gambling · Poker · Video games · Gaming motivations
* Zsolt Demetrovics [email protected]
1 Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Izabella utca 46, Budapest 1064, Hungary
2 Doctoral School of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary 3 International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University,
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Playing video games has become one of the most popular recreational activities, not just among children and adolescents, but also among adults too (Entertainment Software Asso- ciation 2017). Video games have changed throughout the past five decades, and have devel- oped from early standalone games such as Space Marines (1962) and Pong (1972) into col- laborative and competitive games played via massively multiplayer online environments, where millions of players can play simultaneously against the games’ non-player enemies or against other players. More recently, video game playing has become professionalized and for a small minority of players has become a career option in the world of competitive gaming (Faust et al. 2013; Griffiths 2017). This new professional type of video gaming activity has been termed esports (electronic sports). Esport is a new area in the gaming culture, and is starting to become one of the most essential and popular part of video game communities, especially among adolescents and emerging adults.
Competitive video game communities started out in South Korea, and the popularity of First Person Shooter (FPS) games, Real Time Strategy (RTS) games and Massively Multi- player Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) provided a base for the emerging compe- titions, not only in Asia, but also in Western countries and regions (Taylor 2012; Wagner 2006). Globally, there are now thousands of video game players who define themselves as professional gamers (i.e., so-called esport players and pro-gamers). Although the FPS and the RTS genres have retained their popularity, the new Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular genre in esports. As a recent global esport market report (Newzoo 2017) noted, the esport economy grew 41.3% (up to $696 million) in 2017, and esport brand investment is expected to double by 2020. It is estimated that the global esport audience has reached 385 million, and that 45% of them play esport games, 23% view esport streams, and 32% both play and view esport streams (Newzoo 2017).
There are different definitions of what esports comprise although there are some similar characteristics. Ma et al. (2013) drew attention to the fact that esport players differ from casual gamers. An esports player is a professional gamer who plays for competition, rather than for fun and/or relaxation, and define gaming as their job. Casual gamers play for fun and recreation, and to entertain themselves (Ma et al. 2013). Wagner (2006) provided a detailed definition of esport as “an area of sport activities in which people develop and train mental or physical abilities in the use of information and communication technolo- gies” (Wagner 2006, p. 3). Hemphill (2005) adds that esports are “alternative sport reali- ties, that is, to electronically extended athletes in digitally represented sporting worlds” (p. 199). More pragmatically, esports have been defined as “an umbrella term used to describe organized, sanctioned video game competitions, most often in the context of video game tournaments” (Whalen 2013). In summary, according to these definitions and descriptions, esports are alternate sports, and a special way of using video games and engaging in game- play (Adamus 2012).
A number of scholars have attempted to theoretically compare esport to other sports confirming the assumption that esport is similar to other sporting activities (Adamus 2012; Taylor 2012; Wagner 2006). According to Guttman’s (2004) and Suits’ (2007) characteris- tics that define an activity as sport, esport can be classed as a sport because it includes play (i.e., voluntary, intrinsically motivated activity), the events are organized and governed by rules, includes competition with the outcome of a winner and a loser, and comprises skill. Esports also have a large following via online streaming platforms such as Twitch and YouTube. Furthermore, such activities can be played via a Local Area Network (LAN)
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connection between computer devices, the events are hosted by sponsors, and have esport play-by-play commentaries, jumbotrons (i.e., large televised screens), sizeable live audi- ences, and large cash prizes for the best gamers (Adamus 2012; Jenny et al. 2016; Jonasson and Thiborg 2010; Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths 2016).
Taylor (2012) also highlighted in her work, that the rules of esport tournaments, sys- tems, play, judging, and broadcasting can be similar to traditional sports, and professional gamers can be compared to the requirements and practice of the athletes of professional sports (i.e., training, practice, and physical and mental states of athletes). According to Jenny et al. (2016), two of Guttmann’s (2004) criteria need further elaboration before esport being classed as a professional sport. The first criterion concerns physical perfor- mance and the extent to which there is a skillful and strategic use of the player’s body (because not all of it is used when playing). However, there are many sports in which only specific body parts are used when competing (e.g., darts, snooker, shooting) so this cri- terion on its own would not rule out esports being classed as a true sport. The second criterion concerns institutional stability, which means esport requires centralized rules for regulation and stabilization to be recognized as a sport, and not just viewed as a juvenile recreation activity (Jenny et al. 2016). The different types of esport games (e.g., first person shooters, MOBA games) with specific rules make it more difficult to achieve institutional stability. However, global esport organizations already exist, like the International e-Sports Federation (IeSF), supporting esport games to be recognized as professional sports, and providing institutional basis for regulation and stabilization (International e-Sports Federa- tion 2017). Nevertheless, it remains a future task to come to a consensus about whether esport is a genuine sport or not.
To understand the background of the new gaming phenomenon of esport, the explora- tion of the motivational patterns of the video game use is arguably the most important topic. This is particularly relevant because Griffiths (2017) noted that when video gam- ing becomes an occupation and career where players make a financial living rather than engaging in the activity as a hobby, it potentially changes the motivations of gaming. Many researchers have examined the motivations of gamers, and even if the theoretical basis and the examined video game genres are different, some general and common motivational pat- terns have been found according to various empirical studies carried out. For instance, Vor- derer and his colleagues (Vorderer 2000; Vorderer et al. 2003) found that the most essential elements underlying gaming motivations are interactivity and competition. Interactivity is the opportunity to communicate and cooperate with other gamers in the online environ- ment, and competition is the mechanism by which gamers can compare themselves to each other. Sherry and colleagues (Greenberg et al. 2010; Sherry et al. 2006) outlined similar motivational patterns among graduate school and high school students who played video games, including arousal, challenge, competition, distraction, fantasy, and social inter- actions. According to their findings, motivations were different depending upon the age of the gamer. The most important motivations for younger gamers were competition and challenge (those in the 5th grade), while older gamers were more motivated by challenge, social interactions, arousal and distraction (students in the 8th and 11th grades).
Yee (2006a, 2006b) explored the motivations of MMORPG players. Among the motiva- tions for playing were achievement motivations (advancement, mechanics, competition), social motivations (socializing, relationship, teamwork), and immersion factors (discov- ery, role-playing, customization, escapism). The Motivation of Online Games Question- naire developed by Demetrovics et al. (2011) examined gamer motivations in a more general way. However, their results showed similar motivational patterns among gamers to other empirical studies (i.e., escapism, coping, fantasy, skill development, recreation,
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competition, and social). One of the common findings of these different studies is that competition is one of the most essential motivations in the playing of video games. Thus, players who identify themselves as a professional esport player should have higher levels of competitive motivation although other playing motivations are also likely to be different from non-professional and casual players. Despite the popularity of esports, few empiri- cal studies appear to have investigated the psychological profile of professional gamers. Furthermore, there are no systematic reviews of the psychological literature to date. Con- sequently, the present literature review aimed to review recent empirical research that has focused specifically on esport (i.e., professional gaming) from a psychological perspective.
The present study aimed to collate and review all the empirical studies concerning esport from a psychological perspective published between 2000 and 2017. Given that compet- itive gaming only started to occur after videogames could be played online and against other people, the year 2000 was chosen as a start date for the search because the playing of videogames competitively did not exist prior to this date. The data collection included all studies published between January 2000 to July 2017. The literature search comprised the following databases: Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge. The following keywords were used in the respective search engines: ‘esport video gam*’; ‘professional gam*’; ‘pro gam*’; ‘competitive video gam*’; ‘esport competitive video gam*’; ‘sport video gam*’ and ‘professional video gam*’. Each search was performed not only in titles of the papers, but also in the abstracts (where this option was available) for the following reasons: (i) the title words in the paper can sometimes be limited and may not specifically mention esport; and (ii) the authors could use various synonyms or different terms that equated to the definitions of esport.
A total of 30 papers were found as a result of the systematic search. However, based on the inclusion criteria (i.e., an empirical study containing new primary data and published in a peer reviewed journal in the English language), a total of 22 papers were excluded because they were either non-empirical (n = 11), were published in conference proceedings or student theses (n = 8), or were not specifically focused on esport (n = 3). This left a total of eight empirical studies that met the inclusion requirements (see Table 1).
The eight studies comprised three main topics: (i) becoming an esport player (i.e., the iden- tity and transformation of esport players), (ii) the characteristics of esport players (mental skills, motivational patterns, etc.), and (iii) the motivations of esport spectators (i.e., why individuals watch esport).
Becoming an Esport Player
In a study by Seo (2016), the author focused on different perspectives of esport definition, and examined whether esport was fun or work (or neither) by attending esports tourna- ments in a number of countries and via in-depth interviews with 10 professional eSports players. Seo’s (2016) research goals were threefold, to explore: (i) the elements of esport
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consumption that make the activity attractive to a career of a professional esport player, (ii) the reasons why esport players want to pursue such a career opportunity, and (iii) how players progress through the identity transformation to aquire a professional gamer identity. Seo (2016) characterized professional esport playing as a serious leisure activity, follow- ing Stebbins’ (1982) definition. Serious leisure can be defined as an intermediate activity between casual leisure and work with beneficial implications, such as gaining self-concept and identity development during the activity (e.g., amateur sport attendance). In Seo’s study (2016), professional esport players claimed that the main elements that attracted players to pursue a career in esports were the celebration of the mastery of skills, the pursuit of self- improvement, and the importance of fairness, equity, and mutual respect (i.e., via online/ LAN tournaments, formal institutional rules, and the norms and codes of esport govern- ment). However, esport players were determined to aquire a professional career, and that the ‘journey’ gave them opportunity to experience high self-esteem, accomplishment, and social recognition. Even though esport is a serious leisure activity, the professional players still valued the activity as fun and self-motivating. Examining how esport players aquire a professional gamer identity, Seo (2016) identified three stages mapping onto Campbell’s (1965) hero’s journey monomyth. According to the narratives of esport players, in the first stage (“the call to adventure”) players viewed games as casual leisure activity (playing for fun, knowing the mainstream gamer community). However, they started to form initial per- ceptions and gain interpersonal relationships in the social world of esport. In the second phase (“the road of trials”), they begin the personal transformation to becoming an esport player. For example, they specialize their skills and knowledge about game and mechanics, and their attitudes also change towards gaming and they begin to engage more regularly in esport practices. In the final stage (“the master of two worlds”), professional players aquire a new esport gamer identity. They then find the opportunities to confirm this new identity with other important aspects of their daily lives and their global self-concept of being an esports player.
Similarly to Seo (2016), Kim and Thomas (2015) explored the process how a video game player becomes an esport player utilizing activity theory (Engeström 1993, 1999; Engeström et al. 1999). The authors developed a model explaining the gamers’ motiva- tional patterns, changing goals, and learning styles while becoming professional esport players from a more socio-cultural perspective. Kim and Thomas (2015) also highlighted that when trying to define esport, it is important to investigate the complex phenomenon more holistically, including not just the esport players, but also the sponsors, fans, and the whole esport society. From this standpoint, Kim and Thomas (2015) developed their stage theory model of professional video game players by interviewing South Korean profes- sional esport players (n = 9), coaches (n = 2), team directors (n = 2) and a psychological counselor of professional video game play. After all the interviews, five different stages were developed, where the players’ performance and motivational patterns can differ. At the beginning, professional gamers are unexperienced and have to solve tasks they have never seen before (enjoying stage). Following this, they improve their skills, lose their intrinsic motivations, and the enjoyment of gaming (struggling stage). When players gain a more developed competency, they experience the enjoyment of the gaming itself again (achieving stage). Unfortunately, most of the players do not maintain the achieving stage, and no longer have the opportunity to play in an official (professional) capacity. They ‘lose’ the glory and satisfaction they experienced earlier (and enter the slumping stage) before having to recover (recovering stage). The authors drew attention to the motivational pat- terns that change during the development of an esport player, highlighting the fact that esport players use these particular video games differently from a casual gamer. This
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means that playing video games in the higher stages of this model are considered as work (extrinsic motivations) rather than leisure (intrinsic motivations).
The Characteristics of Esport Players
A recent study by (Himmelstein et al. 2017) interviewing five esport players identified the mental skills and techniques used by esport players in achieving optimal performance in a highly competitive gaming environment. The res
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