This week we learned how research designs are different and help us to objectively study nursing problems; the key is to decide which type of research and design will serve the purpose or intent to find a solution. After completing Week 4 readings and lesson, answer the following:
****please include 2 APA citations, and no fewer than 3 paragraphs, please*****
LESSON AND READING TO ASSIST WITH ANSWERING QUESTION:
An easy way to think about the word research design is to think about a map. When planning a trip, it is always a good idea to review the ways or routes to arrive at the correct destination. Like any map, there are generally two to three suggested routes outlining the ways to travel to get to where you want to go. With research designs, there are different ways to choose the best plan/way on how to accomplish/achieve an answer to the problem/issue. Just like maps, there may or may not be the best route; rather, some suggested routes for your journey. The key is to choose your best way ahead of time and then plan your journey following the way accordingly. Same with research designs—you have options.
The research design flows from the research question, the purpose/intent, and outlines the plan for the study that will answer the research question. The design identifies the major components of the study. It is important to remember that there is no one best design for a research study. For example, a quantitative experimental design is considered the gold standard and may produce a stronger level of evidence, but it may be a poor fit for the purpose of the study. Therefore, considerations of design selection include:
For more design decision and considerations, explore chapter 6 of our textbook for details.
As a baccalaureate nurse, understanding basic design elements and scientific processes is an expectation (AACN, 2008; QSEN 2018). It is important to know there are two broad types of classifications or approaches used to acquire or generate knowledge for nursing practice. The two overall research classifications/approaches are:
These two classifications/approaches for research designs are the most important and stem from our two paradigms; simply stated ways of thinking, beliefs, or views (Houser, 2018). It is essential to know the differences in these two types of research classifications for designs as these use differing research methods to generate different types of knowledge useful for our practice of nursing. Research designs originate within one of these two types of classifications:
This type of research is based on a traditional, formal, objective, scientific approach in which numbers (numerical data) are collected and used to produce knowledge or information (Houser, 2018; Polit & Beck, 2018). Overall, quantitative research involves the following:
Quantitative research deals with measurements; below are some of the differing categories of Quantitative Research Designs:
This type of research is based on a naturalistic belief system and is focused on understanding the meaning of an experience from the individual's perspective. We use this type of research to understand the meaning or the human lived experience of certain phenomena (Houser, 2018; Polit & Beck, 2018). For example:
Regardless, the researcher is exploring the subject of interest's perspective and intends to explain their meaning/perspective. Qualitative research involves (Houser, 2018; Polit & Beck, 2018):
Qualitative studies do not investigate cause and effect; nor involve the effect of interventions. However, these studies are valuable to our nursing profession in revealing our subject's/patient's experiences, feelings, values, and perceptions, an important element of an evidence-based practice. Again, qualitative studies are used for "addressing research questions in which the meaning of an experience is central to understanding the best therapeutic approach or provide an understanding from the patient or subject's viewpoint" (Houser, 2018, p. 35). Qualitative research may form the basis of theories and can be used to explore "issues of behavior change, motivation, compliance, or tolerance/ acceptance of a treatment or intervention… a few examples of topics in which the patient's perception is key" (Houser, 2018, p. 35). A few differing categories of Qualitative Research Designs are listed below:
Qualitative Research Designs
Designs can be further categorized using time dimensions (refer to our textbook for more details):
Both quantitative and qualitative approaches are different; however, they are similar in:
Designs that include elements of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Mixed method means that both qualitative and quantitative elements are present.
The research design flows from the research question and outlines the plan for the study that will answer the research question. The design identifies the major components of the study. It is important to remember that there is no one best design for a research study. An experimental design may produce a stronger level of evidence, but it may be a poor fit for the purpose of the study. Examples of research, designs, and the questions each addresses are below.
Gaining insight into how to read various sections of a research study can help you determine whether the research is relevant to your practice, and provides evidence upon which to base your decisions.
Read over Houser's Where to Look section in each chapter to learn how to locate information when reading articles.
Selecting an appropriate design is essential. Understanding the differences in approaches to solving practice problems is critical for the BSN; choosing the best design will help arrive at the best solution, a key element of providing a practice based on evidence.
A fun way to practice! After completing your required readings and the lesson for this week, take the Check Your Knowledge Practice Questions to see how well you understand the concepts offered in your text and lesson. This is not graded or reviewed; just a helpful, fun tool to practice your week four learning. Enjoy!
American Association of Colleges of Nurses (AACN). (2008). Executive summary: The essentials of baccalaureate education for professional nursing practice (2008). Retrieved from http://www.aacnnursing.org/Education-Resources/AAC…
Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Polit, D., & Beck, C. (2018). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN). (2018). QSEN knowledge, skills, and attitude competencies. Retrieved from http://qsen.org/competencies/pre-licensure-ksas/
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