Your essay is designed to increase your understanding of nonverbal communication in relationships. For this 3.5 page essay (abstract + main-body), you should choose a real relationship/interaction in your life and evaluate the nonverbal communication using your textbook. Choose a specific topic reviewed in this class (for example, eye contact) and reflect on the relationship based on the interactions. Make sure to include terminology and theory connections to describe the specific interaction and/or relationship.
Be sure to use specific details and cite your textbook and/or external sources. This writing assignment should include four major sections: the Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References (please see Purdue University's APA Style Guide (Links to an external site.) for more information). Review the assignment rubric available in the assignment description.
*** in text citations needed too
****chapters from the book to find information:
Chapter 6: Haptics: Engaging Physical Contact and Touch
Chapter 7: Oculesics: Engaging Gaze and Other Eye Behaviors
Chapter 8: Vocalics: Engaging the Voice and Other Vocalizations
Chapter 9: Physical Appearance: Engaging Identity and Physical Features
This book is dedicated to Sherri, one of the smartest people I’ve ever met.
Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE Publishing in ���� to support the dissemination of usable knowledge and educate a global community. SAGE publishes more than ���� journals and over ��� new books each year, spanning a wide range of subject areas. Our growing selection of library products includes archives, data, case studies and video. SAGE remains majority owned by our founder and after her lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures the company’s continued independence.
Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore | Washington DC | Melbourne
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION An Applied Approach
Jonathan M. Bowman
Copyright © ���� by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. Except as permitted by U.S. copyright law, no part of this work may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without permission in writing
from the publisher.
All third party trademarks referenced or depicted herein are included solely for the purpose of illustration and are the property of their respective owners. Reference to these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship with,
or endorsement by, the trademark owner.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
���� Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California �����
E-mail: [email protected]
SAGE Publications Ltd.
� Oliver’s Yard
�� City Road
London, EC�Y �SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B �/I � Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi ��� ���
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
�� Cross Street #��-��/��/��
China Square Central
Printed in the United States of America
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: Lily Norton
Editorial Assistant: Sarah Wilson
Senior Content Development Editor: Jennifer Jovin-Bernstein
Production Editor: Gagan Mahindra
Copy Editor: Diane DiMura
Typesetter: Hurix Digital
Proofreader: Susan Schon
Cover Designer: Janet Kiesel
Marketing Manager: Staci Wittek
BRIEF CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgments About the Author Chapter � Nonverbal Communication Origins Chapter � Nonverbal Communication Features Chapter � Identity and the Nonverbal Codes Chapter � Kinesics: Engaging Motion and Gestures Chapter � Proxemics: Engaging Personal Space and Interpersonal Distance Chapter � Haptics: Engaging Physical Contact and Touch Chapter � Oculesics: Engaging Gaze and Other Eye Behaviors Chapter � Vocalics: Engaging the Voice and Other Vocalizations Chapter � Physical Appearance: Engaging Identity and Physical Features Chapter �� Environmental Elements: Engaging Fixed and Semi-Fixed Features Chapter �� Chronemics and Olfactics: Cultural Codes of Time and Scent Chapter �� Nonverbal Communication Moving Forward Glossary References Index
DETAILED CONTENTS Preface Acknowledgments About the Author Chapter � Nonverbal Communication Origins
Models of Communication Linear Model of Communication Transactional Model of Communication
Defining Nonverbal Communication Why Isn’t ASL Considered Nonverbal? Nonverbal Communication Primacy
Primacy of Species Primacy of Individual Primacy of Interaction
Nonverbal Communication Channels Channel Reliance
A Summary of Nonverbal Communication Origins Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter � Nonverbal Communication Features Principles of Nonverbal Messaging
Nonverbal Messaging Is Ubiquitous Nonverbal Messaging Functions in Many Ways Nonverbal Messaging Is Widely Used Nonverbal Messaging Impacts Meaning-Making Nonverbal Messaging Has Primacy Nonverbal Messaging Is Ambiguous Nonverbal Messaging Is Accepted
Digital vs. Analog Representations Message Processing
The Attention Stage The Comprehension Stage
Dialogic Comprehension Empathic comprehension Analytic comprehension
The Memory Stage Nonverbal Communication—Our Innate Ability A Summary of Nonverbal Communication Features Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter � Identity and the Nonverbal Codes Managing Identities
Sex and Gender Race
Culture Personality Other Identities
Identity, Relationships, and Nonverbal Codes Prominent Nonverbal Codes
Kinesics Proxemics Haptics Oculesics Vocalics Physical Appearance Environment Olfactics Chronemics
A Summary of Identity and the Nonverbal Codes Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter � Kinesics: Engaging Motion and Gestures Kinesics Communication, Movement, and the Face
Affect Displays Neurocultural Theory Ekman and Friesen’s microexpressions Social signaling
Communication, Movement, and the Hands and Body Illustrators Regulators Adaptors Body Orientation
A Summary of Kinesics: Engaging Motion and Gestures Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter � Proxemics: Engaging Personal Space and Interpersonal Distance Proxemics
Intimate Zone Personal/Casual Zone Social/Consultative Zone Public Zone
Proxemic Violations Physiological Arousal Perceptions and Expectancy Violations Theory
Deviation Valence Threat Threshold
Interactional Motivations Similarity Difference
Proximity A Summary of Proxemics: Engaging Personal Space and Interpersonal Distance Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter � Haptics: Engaging Physical Contact and Touch Haptics and Human Development
Early Influences The Harlow Monkey Experiment
Classifying Touch Types of Touch Functions of Touch
Ritualistic Touch Positive Affect Touch Control Touch Playful Touch Task-related Touch Hybrid Touch
Diverse Attitudes Toward Touch Affection Exchange Theory Attachment Theory A Summary of Haptics: Engaging Physical Contact and Touch Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter � Oculesics: Engaging Gaze and Other Eye Behaviors Oculesics
Looking Toward Gaze Mutual Gaze and Eye Contact
Eye Movement Pupil Dilation
Oculesics and Emotional Displays Attraction/Interest Affection/Interest Threat
A Summary of Oculesics: Engaging Gaze and Other Eye Behaviors Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter � Vocalics: Engaging the Voice and Other Vocalizations Vocal Characteristics
Vocal Properties Vocal Qualities The Use of Silence
Communication Accommodation Theory Principles of CAT Strategies of CAT
A Summary of Vocalics: Engaging the Voice and Other Vocalizations Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter � Physical Appearance: Engaging Identity and Physical Features Identity and Self-Esteem Theories of Identity Group Membership
Identity Badges In-Groups and Out-Groups Appearance and Identity
Natural Features Body Shape Facial Attractiveness
Artifacts and Adornments Artifacts Adornments
Body Modifications Tie-Signs and Expressions of Uniqueness A Summary of Physical Appearance: Engaging Identity and Physical Features Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter �� Environmental Elements: Engaging Fixed and Semi-Fixed Features Environmental Elements Fixed-Feature Environmental Elements Use and Volume of Space
Materials Lines and Curves
Semi-Fixed-Feature Environmental Elements Artifacts Visual Continua
Environmental Noise Sounds Temperature
A Summary of Environmental Elements: Engaging Fixed and Semi-Fixed Features Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter �� Chronemics and Olfactics: Cultural Codes of Time and Scent Codes and Culture
Created by Culture Creating Culture
Group Membership Revisited Chronemics
Biological Chronemics Conceptualizations of Time
Active Scents Passive Scents
A Summary of Chronemics and Olfactics: Cultural Codes of Time and Scent Closing Questions Key Terms
Chapter �� Nonverbal Communication Moving Forward Nonverbal Communication in Review
Communication Potential of the Codes Absorbing Popular Media, Moving Forward Examining Ethical Behavior, Moving Forward Recognizing Diverse Perspectives, Moving Forward Assessing the Self, Moving Forward Applying Nonverbal Principles Across Contexts, Moving Forward A Summary of Nonverbal Communication Moving Forward Closing Questions
Glossary References Index
PREFACE Aren’t you tired of treating a textbook like an optional feature of a course? I know I am! Nonverbal messaging is one of the most exciting topics in the study of human communication, and yet the structure of most course textbooks has students disinterested within the first few weeks. It’s not that the entire course is filled with dull material; instead, the way that the nonverbal communication course has been constrained by texts has underserved students by under-engaging them from the very beginning. As students, teachers, and scholars of nonverbal messaging, we are likely familiar with scholarly literature that describes the importance of first impressions. Why, then, are we subjected to texts that initially lead to disengaged students, when we know about the importance of those first interactions with a course?
By choosing Nonverbal Communication: An Applied Approach , an instructor can scaffold learning to the pace of their own course while taking advantage of the narrative style that keeps students interested. In addition, the writing style meets the needs of current students who otherwise disengage with the very material that may aid in better navigating those daily experiences in a diverse world. While the nonverbal communication course continues to be taught as a foundational course at the advanced sophomore or junior level, most of the textbooks have been written at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level and follow a formulaic style. Rather than being written by teachers and scholars who have immersed themselves in the lived experience of students, many of these books focus on the minutia of nonverbal codes to the exclusion of the relational contexts that best demonstrate an application of nonverbal communication research. Indeed, often a text only gains momentum and finally becomes a truly engaging read in the last couple chapters.
Rather than waiting until the end of the semester to get students’ and teachers’ attention, Nonverbal Communication: An Applied Approach has taken a narrative style and applied approach that is informed by the important theories and research-driven knowledge of our interdisciplinary area of study. At times, such a text may need to sacrifice a focus on the minutiae of a particular researcher’s advanced theoretical assumptions and comprehensive treatment of a theory in order to better convey the larger goals of that researcher’s work. To be sure, most scholars teaching nonverbal communication long for a book that can better engage students and cut back on unnecessary complications in what can be read as relatively parsimonious theories. In order for a nonverbal communication course textbook to be seen as practical, applied, and worth purchasing, the text must take complex course material and breathe life into the work, targeting material to the complex technology-driven lives of today’s undergraduates. By covering the same synthesized scholarship with a new narrative style and a more consistent structure, the material comes alive without losing the summative knowledge of decades of interdisciplinary research.
ENGAGING THE AUDIENCE The textbook Nonverbal Communication: An Applied Approach is aimed primarily at sophomore- and junior-level courses in nonverbal communication, regardless of the specific discipline in which the course is taught (e.g., communication studies or psychology). In addition, honors-level faculty could also assign a weekly scholarly reading from among the chapter references to supplement the text. Such a course typically has an introductory human communication course as a prerequisite that not only introduces human communication but also previews the exciting content in nonverbal communication courses, depending upon the institution. At the same time, this book is written in such a way as to highlight the needed foundational material so that it can even be taught as a
stand-alone core or general education course with great facility. Regardless of institution or discipline, the nonverbal communication course is typically taken by a major or minor in communication (one of the faster growing majors at colleges and universities in North America) or a major or minor in psychology, or perhaps even by a student with an interest in marketing or advertising because of the added value of understanding some nonverbal communication patterns across contexts.
STRUCTURE AND FEATURES OF THE BOOK While the switch to Nonverbal Communication: An Applied Approach should completely change the level of student engagement with the material, the structure of the book is consistent enough with the overall nonverbal communication market so as to not require a complete reworking of instructors’ lesson planning. Indeed, the book starts off with an overview of both nonverbal messaging and the communication contexts and human behaviors in which this universal form of messaging occurs. Moving next to the most significant nonverbal codes, theory-driven conversations begin to emerge as students discover those codes in applied situations that they are likely to encounter in their own lives. Finally, a few intentional relational contexts at the end of the book allow the student to really explore the application of nonverbal course materials in a narrative way.
The main pedagogical devices for Nonverbal Communication: An Applied Approach include integrated box features found in each chapter of the book that highlight important content for the work (rather than serving as additional extraneous information, as so often occurs in many academic textbooks). The foci of these boxes will include the important application and integration of material, designated by a specific action verb often used in nonverbal messaging research. Each chapter includes a box called Measure that focuses on the measurement of a nonverbal construct, using methods from nonverbal research to illustrate operationalization. An important series of boxes in each chapter that focus on issues of diversity and social justice content are titled Engage, highlighting nonverbal communication by including practical, real-world examples of nonverbal communication in diverse contexts. Next, a feature in each chapter called Examine includes opportunities for personal reflection as well as the consideration of the ethics of nonverbal communication as it relates to each chapter. To illustrate course material using modern applications, the Absorb feature references YouTube video clips from current television or film to explore a nonverbal communication behavior in an example from recent media. Finally, each chapter includes Apply scenarios that help students consider how to practice content related to each section within their own social worlds, encouraging students to become more fluent in navigating unique contexts.
In addition to these newer and innovative pedagogical features, many tried-and-true textbook features are also included in Nonverbal Communication: An Applied Approach to ensure that students are able to successfully navigate such important course content. These include the use of learning objectives and guiding questions at the start of each chapter following an application-based opening vignette, many key terms throughout each chapter, an end-of-chapter summary with closing questions, a glossary, and finally, line drawings or photographs that help to illustrate essential course content or show contexts in which that content emerges.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I’d like to thank my beautiful family (Sherri, Michael, and Nala) who always offer encouragement and prayer support. They mean the world to me. I’d also like to thank the incredible team at SAGE led by my editor, Lily Norton, and all the people who have made my time at SAGE so lovely: Jen Jovin-Bernstein, Sarah Wilson, Monica Eckman, Terri Accomazzo, Gagan Mahindra, and the rest of the group that has been working so diligently behind the scenes. Finally, I’d like to acknowledge the hundreds of students both current and former who have made my career so incredibly joyful over the years. I can’t wait to see what we accomplish for the world together!
A COMMUNITY OF SCHOLARS Many scholars and teachers came together to ensure that this text more than met the needs of students and instructors as they come together to learn about nonverbal communication. Your work and commitment to our discipline is without peer. Thanks to the following individuals for their comments on earlier drafts of Nonverbal Communication: An Applied Approach:
Raymond Blanton, The University of the Incarnate Word
Maria Brann, IUPUI
Stellina M. A. Chapman, State University New York at New Paltz
Monica L. Gracyalny, California Lutheran University
Trey Guinn, The University of the Incarnate Word
L. Jake Jacobsen, University of Nebraska at Kearney
Lynn Meade, University of Arkansas
Sara N. Morgan, Old Dominion University
Diana Karol Nagy, University of Florida
Kekeli K. Nuviadenu, Bethune-Cookman University
Naomi Bell O’Neil, Clarion University of Pennsylvania
Jillian K. Pierson, University of Southern California
Robyn Rowe, Missouri State University
Sheida Shirvani, Ohio University–Zanesville
Lisa J. van Raalte, Sam Houston State University
Robin N. Williamson, University of St. Thomas-Houston
Cheryl Wood, The George Washington University
ABOUT THE AUTHOR Jonathan M. Bowman, PhD,
professor of communication studies, teaches courses in human communication processes and the methods through which we obtain that knowledge about communication. He is heavily involved in the National Communication Association where he currently serves as the chair of the Nonverbal Communication Division. Bowman’s research focuses on communication processes associated with intimacy and close relationships, with publications addressing nonverbal messaging, male friendships, and small-group communication. He has authored, coauthored, or edited four books, and his most recent book Masculinity and Student Success in Higher Education can be purchased anywhere books are sold. He was the recipient of the National Communication Association Ecroyd Award for Outstanding Teaching in Higher Education, the highest teaching honor in the discipline internationally, as well as the national Western States Communication Association Distinguished Teaching Award. Bowman has also received a Keck Faculty Fellowship for his focus on undergraduate research, an Innovations in Experiential Education Award for his commitment to high-impact practices, as well as an Outstanding Preceptor Award for excellence in teaching and advising. He serves as a mentor to undergraduates in multiple capacities, particularly those students involved in student government, Greek life, academic honors, and campus faith-based organizations.
� NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION ORIGINS
Learning Objectives After reading this chapter you will be able to do the following:
Explain types of nonverbal primacy
Compare models of communication
Define nonverbal communication
Understand the impact of channel on messaging
Mika wasn’t thrilled about attending a friend’s start-of-semester get-together, but his new roommate dragged him along to the location a few blocks from campus. Mika didn’t know most of the attendees and wasn’t particularly motivated to meet someone new, so he spent a lot of time looking at memes on his mobile device or pretending to take a few phone calls. After someone spilled a drink on his shoes for what must have been the third time, Mika decided to call it a night and head home. Just as he was headed toward the door, he locked eyes with the most attractive person he had ever seen. After feeling frozen for what seemed like an eternity, he nodded his head and gave a shy smile right as the other person started to turn away. Resigned to leave again, he suddenly saw a smile in response out of the corner of his eye. Mika decided to stick around and give the evening another chance as he switched his phone to airplane mode and ran his fingers through his hair.
From the first impressions that we form about one another to the lifelong social interactions that shape and guide our lives, communication is the primary social process. Without communication, it would prove nearly impossible to navigate our daily lives. Communication allows us to signal a variety of things to one another, from letting our caregivers know we are hungry to warning each other about dangerous predators.� Indeed, most living creatures engage in some form of communication, from the ants marking a trail toward a picnic basket, to the pride of lions using a sophisticated group hunting strategy to avoid starvation. Communication allows groups of creatures—both human and nonhuman—to navigate a complex environment that otherwise may be difficult to survive on one’s own.� Human communication includes the most complicated forms of messaging, as humans use systems of established rule-driven strategies to send messages among themselves for a variety of reasons. Just as we read in the story of Mika above, messaging can be subtle; from indicating interest to avoiding interaction, a variety of verbal and nonverbal messages help us to move throughout our social world.
What kinds of messages help form a first impression in a context like the one above?
How do nonverbal signals impact our social experiences?
MODELS OF COMMUNICATION When considering how humans send messages to one another, it is first helpful to ensure that everyone has a similar shared understanding of the basic models of communication. In order to establish a shared vocabulary about the process of communication, we begin with the linear model of communication, which focuses on the transmission of messages to an audience. Then, we will expand that model to include a more transactional understanding of human interaction.
Linear Model of Communication
Over �� years ago, scholars Shannon and Weaver came up with a model of communication messaging that is still one of the most widely known models of communication today.� As can be seen in Figure �.�, this linear model of communication focuses on the transmission of a verbal or nonverbal message to another person or persons. Because of that focus on one-way transmissions, the linear model starts with the person who originates the message, called the sender. The sender begins the process of encoding, converting his or her thoughts into a specific message that he or she hopes an audience will understand. By sending that message through one or more channels, or ways of transmitting a message like a phone call or a written document or even a gesture, he or she can convey that message directly to the target person, also known as the receiver. Once the receiver has heard or seen the message, he or she then begins decoding the meaning from the message and trying to understand the intent of the sender. When Cheance receives a text “Starving! Must eat now LOL” from her new girlfriend Annabelle, as the receiver she needs to decode the message in an attempt to try to understand what Annabelle’s intent was; are they canceling their later reservation and eating separately on their own, or are they getting together earlier than they had previously planned?
Figure �.� Linear Model of Communication
Although perhaps not a comprehensive model thus far, we now have a working set of vocabulary terms about messaging, as well as a basic understanding of how people send messages to one another. Still, the Shannon and Weaver model goes a couple steps further than this general approach, including in the model the concepts of context and noise. Context is defined as the setting in which communication occurs, not only the physical location but also the time and social situation wherein messaging happens. This context influences both the creation and the transmission of a message for a variety of reasons (i.e., influencing the sender’s mood and even restricting the channels that they find available to them.) For example, Evan may be interested in sending a particularly funny meme to his best friend when he’s in church on Sunday morning, but may not do so, in part because of the emotional experience that he’s having or because of his inability to get to his cell phone without offending the other congregants around him. As such, that funny text may have to wait until later that day. That being said, if he looks across his church congregation and sees Ryan in another pew, he might find himself making a funny face or at least trying to catch his best friend’s eye, despite being situated in a context that would suggest other more
reverent behaviors. The concept of noise, on the other hand, describes any barrier to hearing or understanding that detracts from the successful transmission of a message.� Noise might be as simple as a physical sound that stops you from perceiving a message (e.g., physical noise), to a mental state that distracts someone from correctly understanding a message (e.g., psychological noise). In addition, noise could also be a receiver’s physical state like hunger or sleepiness that interrupt his or her ability to decode a message (e.g., physiological noise), or even may include a situation where individuals don’t understand these symbols that are being used in the message due to specific words or pronunciations (semantic noise). The more noise present in a communication context, the more difficult it will be for a receiver to successfully decode the message that a sender has encoded. Take a look at an example of one possible effect of noise in this chapter’s Apply feature, next.
Box �.� Apply Impacts of Noise on a Homecoming Conversation
Clarice and Sarah had been fighting for a long time. Not only had their mutual friends noticed the lack of respect that they had shown to one another at a variety of social events over the past year, but they often commented upon the disrespectful eye rolls and sighs that each exhibited when the other walked into the room or tried to join the conversation. Finally, Clarice decided that “enough was enough.” At the homecoming football game, Clarice finally decided that she and Sarah needed to have a conversation to talk over their issues with one another. Right before the halftime show on their way to order food, Clarice dragged Sarah away from their mutual group of friends over to a patch of grass away from the snack bar. She started a long monologue about their friendship and how they used to be close, taking responsibility for her own contribution to the deterioration of their relationship. As they both sat side by side watching the marching band on the field, Clarice suddenly realized that Sarah didn’t even know that Clarice was talking. With all the distractions on the field, combined with the sounds and the sights of the homecoming festivities, Sarah was just enjoying the evening breeze, oblivious to the relational goals of Clarice. Discouraged, Clarice decided to stop talking and watch the halftime show herself, vowing to maybe try again some other time if she ever got an opportunity.
Even with the most detailed messaging plan, features of the context or of the relationship can impact our communication attempts. The ability of one person to effectively understand the message of another person is influenced by a variety of factors.
APPLY: Consider the features of the context in which Clarice and Sarah just interacted. What were all the individual types of noise that impacted the quality of this communication situation? What should Clarice try to avoid the next time that she wants to try to reach out to Sarah? How have you had noise disrupt your own attempts as messaging?
Transactional Model of Communication
The linear model of communication is a relatively decent way to think about how one person might send a message to someone else. That being said, most communication is perhaps not quite as one sided as this model
may suggest. In most situations, people are sending messages at the same time to each other, with each person serving as both a sender and a receiver of messages throughout the interaction. The transactional model of communication better captures our understanding of that back-and-forth between people, as seen in Figure �.�.� In this model, we are able to add in the concept of feedback, which is the verbal and nonverbal responses that someone gives in reaction to a message that they are receiving—a set of responses that influence future messaging. When Brooke and Adam were discussing restaurants in trying to decide where to have dinner, Adam’s funny facial expressions helped her adapt her messaging on the fly; Adam’s …
Your essay is designed to increase your understanding of nonverbal communication in relationships. For this 3.5-4 page essay (abstract + main-body), you should choose a real relationship/interaction in your life and evaluate the nonverbal communication using your textbook. Choose a specific topic reviewed in this class (for example, eye contact) and reflect on the relationship based on the interactions. Make sure to include terminology and theory connections to describe the specific interaction and/or relationship.
We are a professional custom writing website. If you have searched a question and bumped into our website just know you are in the right place to get help in your coursework.
Yes. We have posted over our previous orders to display our experience. Since we have done this question before, we can also do it for you. To make sure we do it perfectly, please fill our Order Form. Filling the order form correctly will assist our team in referencing, specifications and future communication.
2. Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER INFORMATION" section and click “PRICE CALCULATION” at the bottom to calculate your order price.
3. Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
4. Click “FINAL STEP” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
5. From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.